Biomarkers are biological measures of a biological state. By definition, a biomarker is "a characteristic that's objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention."

Examples of biomarkers include everything from pulse and vital sign through basic chemistries to more complex laboratory tests of blood and other tissues. Biomarkers are useful during a number of the way, including measuring the progress of disease, evaluating the foremost effective therapeutic regimes for a specific cancer type, and establishing long-term susceptibility to cancer or its recurrence. The parameter can be chemical, physical or biological. Biomarkers could also be produced by the cancer tissue itself or by other cells within the body in response to cancer. They can be found in the blood, stool, urine, tumor tissue, or other tissues or bodily fluids. Notably, biomarkers are not limited to cancer. Colorimetric, fluorescent and electrochemical detection remain the most widely used ones. Nevertheless, detection mechanism such as chemiluminescence and other detection mechanisms have also been applied to disease biomarker detection. There are three major sorts of biomarkers: biomarkers of exposure, effect and susceptibility. A biomarker of exposure is an exogenous chemical or its metabolite(s), or the merchandise of an interaction between a xenobiotic agent and a few target molecule or cell that's measured in a compartment within an organism.  

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