Perspective - Imaging in Medicine (2022) Volume 14, Issue 12

Emerging treatment in Anemia in myelofibrosis

Samer Omer*

Department of Medical Research, University of Guelph, Canada

*Corresponding Author:
Samer Omer
Department of Medical Research, University of Guelph, Canada

Received: 01-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. FMIM-22-83008; Editor assigned: 05-Dec-2022, Pre-QC No.FMIM-22-83008 (PQ); Reviewed: 19-Dec-2022, QC No. FMIM-22-83008; Revised: 24-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. FMIM-22-83008 (R); Published: 30-Dec-2022; DOI: 10.37532/1755- 5191.2022.14(12).01-03


A clonal hematologic malignancy called myelofibrosis causes progressive bone marrow fibrosis. Splenomegaly, constitutional symptoms, and anaemia are some of the clinical signs of MF. Anemia has a complex pathophysiology and is clinically linked to poor quality of life and worse overall survival. Allogenic stem cell transplantation is the sole curative therapy for MF, however only a small number of individuals are suitable. The efficacy of disease treatment techniques for MF-related anaemia is limited, and Janus kinase inhibitors may cause or exacerbate the condition. As a result, there is a big unmet need in the field of treating MF-related anaemia patients. This review discusses existing and novel therapies for anaemia in MF, such as momelotinib and pacritinib JAK inhibitors, luspatercept and KER-050 transforming growth factor-ligand traps, and pelabresib, a bromodomain extra-terminal domain inhibitor.


Anemia • Myelofibrosis • A Clonal Hematologic


Telomerase inhibitor, imetelstat, an antifibrotic drug, and navitoclax. Ruxolitinib may be used in therapeutic combinations to provide an additional therapeutic avenue [1]. Myelofibrosis is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm that can develop on its own, after essential thrombocythemia or polycythemia Vera, or both. Severe anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenia, cachexia, bone pain, splenic infarct, pruritus, thrombosis, bleeding, and constitutional symptoms are some of the clinical signs of MF [2]. Hematopoietic stem cells clonally proliferate in MF, leading in extramedullary abnormal megakaryocytic hyperplasia, inefficient erythropoiesis, and haematopoiesis [3]. Induced by a variety of growth hormones secreted by excessively enlarged megakaryocytes, bone marrow fibrosis and fibroblastic proliferation result in an unfavourable environment for erythropoiesis and ineffective compensatory extramedullary haematopoiesis [4]. As a result, erythropoiesis dysfunction leads to MF-related anaemia, a defining sign of poiesis leads to MFrelated anaemia, a characteristic sign of MF [5].


MF is linked with substantial morbidity due to progressive marrow loss, progression to acute myeloid leukaemia, thrombotic and hemorrhagic consequences, infections, transfusion-dependent anaemia, and thrombocytopenia Ballen [6]. Treatment for MF is difficult, and MF-related complications often result in significant mortality. Allogenic stem cell transplantation is the only curative treatment available right now, but it's only an option for younger, physically healthy individuals and comes with a substantial risk of treatment-related mortality and morbidity [7]. Ballen Red blood cell transfusions, erythropoiesis-stimulating medications, androgens, steroids, splenectomy, and immunomodulatory medicines are being used to treat MF-related anaemia. However, these therapies have limited efficacy and duration of response and come with a number of adverse effects [8]. Improvements in the knowledge of the aetiology of MF-related numerous cuttingedge treatments for anaemia have been created. This review offers a summary of findings from studies testing both established and novel treatment medicines for MF-related anaemia [9]. The percentage of primary vs secondary MF in patient groups under study can have an impact on the incidence of MF-related anaemia, which varies widely between research The prevalence of anaemia, which is determined by haemoglobin levels, has been discovered in several investigations [10]. The multifactorial mechanism that leads to anaemia in MF is still not fully known. The pathogenesis includes splenomegaly, which aids in the destruction of mature RBCs, bone marrow fibrosis, reduced effective erythropoiesis due to the movement of hematopoietic progenitor cells to extramedullary sites, reduced effective erythropoiesis due to the displacement of these cells from the bone marrow, and increased plasma volume resulting in delusional anaemia Namangan and Mascarenhas, Anemia caused by MF also results from bleeding RBCs. Additionally, the proinflammatory bone marrow niche of MF patients, which is mostly the result of aberrant megakaryocyte cytokine production, plays a significant role in upsetting the bone marrow microenvironment and negatively affects erythroid development. Hepcidin synthesis is elevated as a result of abnormal cytokine production, which also disrupts iron metabolism. However, studies testing the impact of this medication have been modest with varying response rates ranging from in retrospective series, which inhibits functional erythropoiesis and contributes to anaemia. Low baseline serum erythropoietin levels and minimal RBC transfusion needs are predictors of an ESA response; nonetheless, even among patients who are suitable for therapy, response rates are unpredictable, and many inevitably succumb. Grow resistant to ESA therapy. ESAs are not frequently used to treat MF-related anaemia because of their limited efficacy in transfusion-dependent patients, the risk of vascular complications, and the potential to exacerbate splenomegaly. Androgens have proerythroid properties that have been used in the treatment of MF-related anaemia, though the exact mechanism has not been determined.


Testosterone enanthate and oral fluoxymesterone are two proven androgens that can be utilised to treat individuals with MF-related anaemia. The synthetic attenuated androgen danazol, which was recently shown to have greater safety and tolerability and comparable effectiveness to roughly 30% for the other androgens and responses, including in RBC both in patients who require blood transfusions and those who do not. Danazol is well tolerated but should not be used by those who have androgen-dependent malignancies, have thrombosis or have had thrombosis in the past, have significantly compromised cardiac, hepatic, or renal function, are pregnant, or are nursing Although androgen response rates are low, they are nevertheless a viable therapy choice for this patient population due to their acceptable safety profile. In fact, the phase 3 MOMENTUM research is presently comparing danazol to the JAK inhibitor momelotinib. Steroids are used to treat MF-related anaemia because they reduce inflammatory stimuli linked to MF development. Although response rates were comparable to those seen with danazol in the few trials that did test prednisone in this patient population, systemic steroid therapy is linked to adverse effects, including hyperglycemia.


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