Mini Review - Imaging in Medicine (2022) Volume 14, Issue 10

Human ocular surface in microcirculation by assisted video microscopy

Alexander Franceschini*

Department of Biomedical Science and Engineering, University Nantong, China

*Corresponding Author:
Alexander Franceschini
Department of Biomedical Science and Engineering, University Nantong, China

Received: 01-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. FMIM-22-78067; Editor assigned: 05-Oct-2022, Pre-QC No.FMIM-22-78067 (PQ); Reviewed: 19-Oct-2022, QC No. FMIM-22-78067; Revised: 24-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. FMIM-22-78067 (R); Published: 31-Oct-2022, DOI: 10.37532/1755- 5191.2022.14(10).01-04


Anterior segment features of the eye may now be accurately measured using non-invasive imaging methods [1]. In this work, the ocular surface of healthy adults is subjected to the innovative oxygen delivery index concept, which measures microvascular capacity for oxygen transport [2]. The goal of the study was to evaluate the technologies that were utilised to collect data from the human ocular surface [3]. In order to determine if the ODIN concept has the necessary sensitivity to identify and distinguish between microvascular structure and function in limbal and bulbar conjunctiva, we also conducted this validation [4]. Twenty healthy participants had their limbal and bulbar conjunctiva measured many times using computer-assisted video microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy [5]. Functional capillary density, capillary flow velocity, and microvascular oxygen saturation were the three metrics that were retrieved during the analysis. Compared to bulbar conjunctiva, the limbus has higher capillary density and oxygen extraction, which may be detected with appropriate sensitivity [6]. Examining the ocular surface is simple, and imaging methods looking at the anterior ocular vascular networks are increasingly being employed to identify morphological vessel patterns linked to disease [7].


Microcirculation • Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy • Capillaries • Imaging technique


Conjunctival microangiopathy has been hypothesised to be detectable before retinopathy, for instance in diabetes, and techniques that detect microvascular malfunction before structural irreversible alterations take place may be helpful in ophthalmology [8]. The microcirculation's main function is to reabsorb waste products while also providing oxygen and nutrients to tissue cells [9]. At the limbus, functional capillary density was greater than in the bulbar conjunctiva. In conclusion, the evaluation of human ocular surface microvascular metabolic waste is appropriate to the ODIN concept [10]. The microvasculature of the conjunctiva is intricate. Conjunctival microcirculatory morphology and blood flow velocity patterns have been described using imaging techniques, and sensors that calculate conjunctival oxygen saturation have been proposed as alternatives to pulse oximetry. However, these methods alone cannot measure microvascular function [11]. The non-invasive oxygen delivery index incorporates standardised clinical evaluation techniques, technology for data gathering and processing, and analyses the capacity of capillaries to supply oxygen to cells in tiny tissue volumes [12]. Three factors are measured: microvascular oxygen saturation, capillary flow rates, and functional capillary density [13]. The idea has been applied to characterise and measure the function of the skin's microcirculation in both animals and people DRS spectra from 0.1 mm3 tissue volumes were collected using a spectrometer, Avant’s, Apeldoorn, The coupled to a halogen light source and a portable measurement probe with six emitting and one receiving 400 m fibres. The probe was calibrated against a white reference tile before each session [14]. The ODIN idea was used to the ocular surface of a pig model to demonstrate its ability to distinguish between FCD and CFV in various ocular surface areas. It is uncertain if this method might be used to evaluate human ocular microvascular function [15].


About 70% of the refractive power is contained in the cornea, and accurate picture transmission to the retina depends on the cornea's transparent integrity. Continuously re-epithelializing limb stem cells Compared to bulbar conjunctiva, the avascular corneal surface has a greater density near the limbus. It has been demonstrated in cell cultures that oxygen consumption rises linearly as cell density rises. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the metabolic rate at the limbus is higher than the bulbar conjunctiva, even though we were unable to uncover any research to support this hypothesis. The goal of the study was to evaluate the technologies that were utilised to collect data from the human ocular surface. Additionally, we checked to see if the ODIN concept is sensitive enough to identify and distinguish between the microvascular structure and function in the limbal and bulbar conjunctiva. Along with their blood pressure, heart rate, and arterial oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry, the participants' ages and genders were recorded. Intraocular Before one drop of oxibuprocaine was given to the left conjunctival sac; pressure and best corrected visual acuity were assessed using a chart from the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study in a room with uniform illumination. In response to the volunteers' requests, further drops were added. Before beginning the microvascular evaluations, the anterior and posterior portions of the eye were thoroughly examined while the patient was seated in a slit lamp unit. The goal of the study was to evaluate the technologies that were utilised to collect data from the human ocular surface. Additionally, we checked to see if the ODIN concept is sensitive enough to identify and distinguish between the microvascular structure and function in the limbal and bulbar conjunctiva. Twenty self-reported healthy volunteers with evenly dispersed genders from the hospital personnel and their acquaintances participated in this study. Age range of best corrected visual acuity of at least 20/20 and refractive error of fewer than 5 dioptres was the inclusion criteria. Smoking, active systemic or ocular illness, and prior eye surgery were exclusion factors. In accordance with the principles for human research outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki, each participant gave their written, signed consent. Following a successful application to the Regional Committees for Medical and Health Ethics, the study was carried out in the Department of Ophthalmology, Oslo University Hospital. Ocular surface measurements were made repeatedly using a portable DRS probe and a slit lamp fixed microscope. The DRS probe was gently put on the eye, but the microscope did not come into contact with it. Eyeball surface between each recording, the apparatus was moved to record various measurement volumes. During recordings, eye movement was kept to a minimum using an external fixation target. The bulbar conjunctiva was manually exposed by retracting the upper eyelid. To direct recordings from the bulbar conjunctiva, a mark 4 mm from the limbus in the upper temporal quadrant was imprinted with a sterile blunt insertor. Prior to five CAVM recordings of 15 s from the bulbar conjunctiva, twelve DRS spectra were captured. At limbus, the process was then repeated. The probe was placed on an avascular cornea during limbal DRS recordings, and it was moved laterally until the distinctive oxygen-extraction curve was seen on the computer screen. a video microscope helped by computers Custom software is used for analysis. In addition to a playing video, the programme generated horizontal or slanted gridlines, with six neighbouring lines inspected during analysis. Each participant submitted one randomly selected bulbar conjunctival video. A non-invasive method for examining the biochemical and morphological characteristics of exposed tissues is diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Photons from a light source have their paths altered by scattering and absorption as they enter the target tissue.


The scan probe picks up a tiny portion of the injected light that is reflected back to it in a diffuse manner, which contains details on the morphology and chemical makeup of the tissue. Based on light-matter interaction and other known phenomena, a mathematical model calculates the amount of oxygenated haemoglobin. The current work shows that it is possible to quantify the human ocular surface microcirculatory function using the ODIN concept. Enhanced oxygen extraction and FCD size In healthy people, greater microvascular oxygen transport at the limbus compared to bulbar conjunctiva results from a higher metabolic rate. This non-invasive idea used on the anterior segment in ophthalmology may be helpful for diagnosing, tracking the development of illness, and assessing the results of treatment. The microcirculation must continuously provide oxygen to the cells for respiration. In response, August Krogh declared that all critical cells are found within a defined distance, which is thought to be in the range of a perfused capillary to acquire an adequate oxygen supply. He did this because he understood that oxygen molecules disperse poorly in human tissues. Not every vessel in capillary networks receives constant blood flow. Non-innervated Pericytes control microvascular dynamics and react to changes. Local hypoxia causes Pericytes to enlarge and recruited closed capillaries Pericytes constrict and may seal capillaries when tissue oxygenation is adequate. Pericytes also have an impact on capillary flow rates because they contract, reducing capillary width and increasing flow resistance. Basic information about volunteers is provided in A rundown of the data is provided in Eighty percent of the recorded films were used for CFV analyses, and ninety five percent were of high enough quality to assess FCD. 8% of the spectra that were recorded were discarded. The number of examined spectra and capillaries is displayed in. No negative outcomes were seen throughout tests, however three volunteers complained of pain when collecting limbal data. According to the mentioned skin FCD values, the skin metabolic rate of neonates may be projected to be greater than that of adult skin. While our bulbar FCD values were low, even when compared to adult skin, our limbal FCD values were in the same range as newborn skin, indicating a greater capability for oxygen transport at limbus. Four individuals had video records that had movement artefacts that made it impossible to determine the CFV at the bulbar conjunctiva or the limbus. Only the subjects having CFV values from both sites were included since our goal was to compare data from the limbal and bulbar regions. There were more capillaries classified as continuous flow than any other kind, and there were no variations in CFV between bulbar and limbal capillaries. Continual flow occurs in the capillaries of healthy human skin.


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