Around the world, waste generation rates area unit rising. This includes organic, non-organic (such as plastic) and excrement. With fast increment and urbanisation, annual waste generation is predicted to extend by seventieth from 2016 levels to three.40 billion tonnes in 2050.

Compared to developed nations, residents in developing countries, particularly the urban poor, area unit additional raspingly wedged by unsustainable waste management. In low-income countries, over ninetieth of solid waste is disposed in unregulated dumps or overtly burned. Lack of safe bogs, collection, treatment and employ of unclean sludge usually leads to personal unclean sludge collectors disposing unclean sludge into the open surroundings. All at a rare price to public and environmental health.