Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Smoking is undeniably the leading cause of both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD) and lung cancer. However COPD is independently correlated with the risk of lung cancer, even after the history of smoking has altered, indicating specific pathologies beyond smoke exposure (1–4). The elucidation of the key mechanisms for connecting the two diseases that lead to the detection of lung cancer chemoprevention modalities, and the development of biomarkers to help assess lung cancer risk.  While the study of shared mechanisms between COPD and lung cancer is evolving, a number of general theories are emerging. Hypotheses include genetic predisposition, increased oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, accelerated cellular aging and pathology of the extracellular matrix ( ECM). 

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