Bioprocesses represent a promising and environmentally friendly choice to replace the well-established chemical processes used today for the assembly of platform chemicals, fuels, and alternative industrial product. Important analysis is being performed to optimize bioconversion processes and bio refineries, that do already be, to some extent, with typical refineries. A range completely different of various choices and technologies area unit being studied and area unit presently on the market to obtain different helpful end-products through bioprocesses. Several such processes concentrate on renewable resources, biomass, or pollutants as primary feed stocks. The latter avoid food fuel competition, contrary to another feed stocks thought of within the past, and, sometimes, still nowadays. This special issue offers some samples of attention-grabbing alternatives. Some appropriate feed stocks embrace biomass, solid waste, sludge, waste product, waste gases, or perhaps by products, like glycerine, from alternative biorefinery processes. Many of these feed stocks and their corresponding bioconversion processes area unit addressed here. Some prime matters might have might have undergoing microbic fermentation, such those composed of complicated compound materials, which first got to be born-again to smaller or monomeric molecules so as to be accessible and metabolized by microorganisms. Differing types of microorganisms are studied and can be used as biocatalysts, together with pure or mixed cultures of aerobic and anaerobic bacterium, yeasts and fungi normally, moreover as alga. The biocatalysts are also wild-type or engineered ones. Direct application of enzymes also can be thought of. Bioconversion processes usually come about in bioreactors, which can be operated in batch, continuous, or semi-continuous mode, among others. Moreover, totally different bioreactor configurationsmay be appropriate betting on betting on application. The technology could vary from solid-phase bioconversion processes to gas-phase ones, besides binary compound part bioprocesses. In any case, a given amount of wet is mostly required, as this can be needed, in most cases, for best microbe activity. For any given feedstock, catalyst and bioreactor configuration and operative conditions can need to be optimized, in terms of aspects like continuance in continuous processes, pH, or media composition as studied and reportable in many manuscripts during this issue.


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