Advanced Glycation End Products

The advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are organic molecules formed in any living organisms with an excellent sort of structural and functional properties. Due to their great heterogeneity, there's no specific test for his or her operational measurement. In this review, we have updated the most common chromatographic, colorimetric, spectroscopic, mass spectrometric, and serological methods, typically used for the determination of AGEs in biological samples. We have described their signaling and signal transduction mechanisms and cell epigenetic effects. Although mass spectrometric analysis isn't widespread within the detection of AGEs at the clinical level, this system is very promising for the first diagnosis and therapeutics of diseases caused by AGEs. Protocols are available for high-resolution mass spectrometry of glycated proteins although they're characterized by complex machine management.Among them, immunochemical tests are very common since they are able to detect AGEs in a simple and immediate way. In these years, new methodologies are developed using an in vivo novel and noninvasive spectroscopic methods. These methods are supported the measurement of autofluorescence of AGEs. Another method consists of detecting AGEs within the human skin to detect chronic exposure, without the inconvenience of invasive methods. The aim of this review is to match the various approaches of measuring AGEs at a clinical perspective thanks to their strict association with oxidative stress and inflammation

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