Review Article - Pharmaceutical Bioprocessing (2023) Volume 11, Issue 2
Organ-specific Nano ceria bioprocessing is revealed by analytical high-resolution electron microscopy.
University of Waikato, New Zealand
University of Waikato, New Zealand
Received: 02-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. FMBP-23-86980; Editor assigned: 04-Mar-2023, PreQC No. FMBP-23-86980 (PQ); Reviewed: 18-Mar-2023, QC No FMBP-23-86980; Revised: 23-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. FMBP-23-86980 (R); Published: 30-Mar-2023, DOI: 10.37532/2048-9145.2023.11(2).16-18
The techniques used to characterize the organ-specific bioprocessing of a relatively inert nanomaterial (Nano ceria) include high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), high angle annular dark field scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. After a prolonged in vivo exposure of 90 days, liver and spleen samples were obtained from rats that received a single intravenous infusion of Nano ceria. The organ-specific cellular and subcellular fate of Nano ceria following its uptake was clarified using these cutting-edge analytical electron microscopy techniques. The liver and spleen process Nano ceria differently when it comes to bioprocessing.
To dispel some of the doubts that are associated with the widespread use of nanoparticles, it is necessary to acquire a deeper comprehension of the roles that nanoparticle bio distribution and fate, interactions with tissues, and in vivo effects play. It is necessary to recognize the fundamental processes that take place at the bio-Nano interface as well as the mechanisms and chemistry involved in order to make progress in the development of better methodologies for safety assessment and comprehension of the toxicity of nanomaterial. Utilizing cutting-edge highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) in conjunction with in situ spectroscopic techniques and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is one strategy. This field’s beginnings have been described. Enhancements in EDS and EELS detection capabilities, in addition to the online availability of brand-new experimental and computational spectral databases, will support further advancements in this field. As part of the Materials Project at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a comprehensive database of experimental and theoretical x-ray absorption and EELS data is currently being created. It provides online programs and instruments for comparing various nanoparticle and metastable phase properties with experimental or analytical datasets to access electronic and structural information. This is especially crucial for the recently described in vivo transformation and subsequent cellular and subcellular formation of second generation nanoparticles. The underlying mechanisms that regulate bioprocessing, which alters the primary particle’s physicochemical properties, are poorly understood. When particle stability is compromised, we previously defined in vivo processing as the dynamic chemical and physical breakdown and subsequent transformation of nanoparticles at the cellular and subcellular levels. Consequently, new reaction products are produced, and the released ions can be transported to create new nuclei and nanoparticles of the second generation. Nanomaterial’s can be bioprocessed or biodegraded in vivo, most likely through dissolution. This causes structural loss, changes in their physicochemical properties, activity, and even toxicity. New phases can form nearby or far away as a result of the transport of bio soluble components. Carbon-based nanomaterial are quite bio persistent, whereas carbon nanotubes have been shown to undergo peroxidasemediated degradation. In vivo, Nano scale barium sulphate dissolves relatively quickly. Bio persistent nanomaterial, their ultimate fate, and the potential toxicity brought on by their prolonged persistence and subsequent exposure are of particular concern. There is a lot of interest in nanoceria’s potential as a therapeutic agent, as well as its current applications. It has industrial uses that take advantage of its abrasiveness and auto-catalytic oxidation/reduction, which is caused by reversible oxygen binding at its surface and converts reduced to oxidize. Planarization and chemical mechanical polishing make use of it [1-5].
Materials and Methods
The male Sprague Dawley rats, as well as their housing, diet, and surveillance; administration of Nano ceria; samples that were taken at the end; and the methods for histologically evaluating the tissue and preparing it were described in III. A 1-hour intravenous infusion of 85 mg/kg Nano ceria was given to the Nano ceria-treated rats. The toxicology and experimental pathology approach of first determining whether a novel substance produces effects was followed by lower exposures to determine the dose-response determination for this single high dose Nano ceria exposure. Additionally, the high dose was utilized to maximize the likelihood of ICP-MS cerium quantification and microscopy Nano ceria detection up to 90 days later. Because Nano ceria are bio permanent, tissue levels that are achieved with a single high dose may be maintained with multiple smaller doses. Yokel et al.’s initial research demonstrated that the dose was well tolerated. 2012). Infusions of vehicle were given to the control rats. After the infusion was finished, three Nano ceria and three control rats were killed off one, seven, and thirty days later, respectively. Ninety days after the infusion, six control rats and seven Nano ceria-treated rats were put down. Prior to termination, they were anesthetized with 80 mg/kg ketamine and 10 mg/kg xylazine intraperitoneally to prevent them from responding to stimuli. For histopathology analysis, tissues were taken from the liver and spleen, fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin, and processed. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the University of Kentucky approved the use of animals in the research. The research was carried out in accordance with the Toxicology Animal Use Guidelines [6-10].
Histological examination by microscopy
Dehydrated liver and spleen samples were cut into 3 mm3 pieces, embedded in Araldite 502, and dehydrated. For light microscopy screening, the histologically collected blocks were sectioned to a thickness of 1 m and stained with toluidine blue. A Phillips CM-10 low resolution electron microscope with a LaB6 cathode (Phillips Electronic Instruments Co. Eindhoven, The Netherlands) operated at 60 kV was used to examine selected blocks after they had been further sectioned and mounted on Formvar/ carbon coated copper grids (200 mesh, Ted Pella Inc., Redding, CA). Nanoceria’s-containing Kupffer cells were identified by their larger size and sinusoidal location in the liver, while Cephosphate.
In order to observe differences during microscopic analysis, the high dose was chosen. Numerous foci in the white pulp contained clusters of cells with Nano ceria inclusion. Through its vasculature, one can examine the splenic microanatomy. Before entering the interior fibrous trabecular, the lineal artery branches into progressively smaller calibre arteries as it enters the spleen through the hilus. At that point, they are referred to as the central arteries, and they are surrounded by sheaths of expanding lymphatic tissue to form the white pulp, or splenic follicles. Before entering the splenic red pulp, the central arteries that leave the white pulp become the penicillin arteries. The sinuses and splenic cords are found in the red pulp, whereas the white pulp of the spleen is primarily composed of lymphatic tissue. The red pulp contains a lot of mixed red and white cells in the cavities of the spleen. This is especially true for nanoparticles and other experimental treatment entities. Invader nanoparticles may penetrate the splenic parenchyma through these structural features of the splenic microcirculation. It has been reported that the white pulp receives more than 90 percent of the splenic blood flow. It suggests that blood-borne entities, including nanoparticles (Nano ceria), could preferentially affect the white pulp upon entering the spleen, as observed in the current study, highlighting the widespread role of the spleen as a lymphoid organ. Kupffer cells and T cells, on the other hand, are primarily responsible for the uptake of Nano ceria in the liver, which results in the formation of granulomas, though not to the same extent as in the spleen.
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