Commentary - Advanced Materials Science Research (2023) Volume 6, Issue 1
Materials with nanostructures for use in drug delivery and tissue engineering
Department of Material science Ethiopia
Department of Material science Ethiopia
Received: 30-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. aaamsr-23-87775; Editor assigned: 01-Feb-2023, Pre-QC No. aaamsr-23-87775 (PQ); Reviewed: 15- Feb-2023, QC No. aaamsr-23-87775; Revised: 18-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. aaamsr-23-87775 (R); Published: 25-Feb-2023; DOI: 10.37532/ aaasmr.2023.6(1).07-09
In the meantime, advances in nanotechnology enable systematic characterization, manipulation, and organization of matter at the nanometre scale. As controlled release reservoirs for drug delivery and artificial matrices for tissue engineering, biomaterials with Nano scale organization have been utilized. It is possible to synthesize drug-delivery systems with controlled composition, shape, size, and morphology. To improve cellular uptake, immunocompatibility, and solubility, their surface properties can be altered. Suboptimal bioavailability, limited effective targeting, and the possibility of cytotoxicity are some of the drawbacks of the current drug delivery systems. Dendrites, nanoparticles, Nano capsules, nanotubes, and Nano gels are among the promising and adaptable Nano scale drug delivery systems. Peptides, proteins, plasmid DNA, and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides are all examples of bio macromolecules that can be delivered through them. Current techniques place an emphasis on the control of cell behaviours and the formation of tissue by Nano scale topography that closely resembles the natural extracellular matrix (ECM), as opposed to the hydrolytically degradable macropores materials that were the foundation of traditional scaffolds for tissue engineering. Researchers used electro spinning or selfassembly to create Nano fibrous scaffolds because they realized that the natural ECM is a multifunctional Nano composite. It has been demonstrated that Nan crystal-containing Nanocomposites stimulate active bone growth. Tissue engineering and drug delivery are closely related fields. In point of fact, controlled delivery of mammalian cells is the goal of tissue engineering, which can be seen as a special case of drug delivery
Nanomaterial • Biomaterials • Drug delivery • Tissue Engineering • Nanoparticles • Nano capsules • Nanotubes • Nano gels • Dendrimers • Nano fibril • Network • Hydrogel • Electro spinning • Self-assembly • Nanocomposites
The development of drug-delivery systems and devices is being transformed by the interdisciplinary field of Nano biotechnology, which brings together elements of chemistry, biology, engineering, and medicine . Traditional pharmaceuticals, recombinant proteins, vaccines, and nucleic acids can now be targeted at specific sites and released in a controlled manner thanks to new materials and formulations. To improve a drug’s therapeutic index, Nano scale drug delivery systems can be designed to adjust release kinetics, control bio distribution, and minimize toxic side effects. In order to enable “smart” drug delivery, future generation systems will include bio sensing capabilities and in vivo feedback . Drug delivery aims to both overcome the inherent limitations of bio macromolecular therapeutics, such as a short plasma half-life, poor stability, and the possibility of immunogenicity, and maximize therapeutic activity while minimizing drug-related toxic side effects. The current drug delivery systems are efficient at controlling the release of drugs to achieve a high local concentration; however, it can only be used to target tissues, not individual cells. The nanometre size range improves the ability of drug-delivery carriers to cross cell membranes, reduces the risk of unwanted clearance from the body through the liver or spleen, and minimizes their uptake by the reticuloendothelial system despite having a lower capacity for loading drugs. Because of their greater surface area-tovolume ratios, smaller particles can overcome bioavailability limitations imposed by solubility . The biological properties and, consequently, function of Nano-scale drug-delivery systems are greatly influenced by particle size. Size variation has a significant impact on bioavailability and blood circulation time even at the Nano scale. Particles with diameters less than 10 nm are quickly eliminated through extravasation and renal clearance following systemic administration even very small capillaries can be penetrated by particles with diameters ranging from 10 to 70 nm. Particles with diameters between 70 and 200 nm have the longest circulation times. Even very small capillaries can be penetrated by particles with diameters ranging from 10 to 70 nm . The particles with the longest circulation times are those with diameters between 70 and 200 nm. Additionally, the spleen typically stores particles with diameters greater than 200 nm before phagocytes eventually remove them.
The necessity of creating Nano biomaterials
In addition to providing mechanical support for embedded cells, the native ECM is a dynamic, hierarchically organized Nano composite that interacts with cells and promotes and regulates cellular functions like adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis . Multiple binding domains bind extracellular molecules together, resulting in a stable multifunctional matrix and complex supramolecular structures. The dimensions of structural protein fibers such as elastin and collagen fibers found in typical connective tissue range from to several hundred nanometres . The protein fibers with Nano scales tangle together to form a non-woven mesh that gives the tissue tensile strength and elasticity. In the ECM, adhesive proteins like fibronectin and laminin also exist as Nano scaled fibers that provide specific cell adhesion binding sites. The ECM’s amorphous components serve both structural and functional functions. They create a composite material with the desired properties as space filler that resists compression. Additionally, they play a crucial role in sustaining normal cellular activity . Proteoglycans seem to play a significant role in tendons in securing the mechanical coupling of adjacent collagen fibrils and ultimately distributing the mechanical stress throughout the tissue.
Electro spinning produces Nano fibrous scaffolds
Electro spinning aims to produce ECM-mimetic with a physical structure that is comparable to that of the fibrous proteins in native ECM, despite their distinct chemical compositions. Electro spinning works by drawing a polymer solution through an orifice and into a collector with the help of an electric field. This results in the production of submicron polymer fiber mesh with a fiber diameter of several hundred nanometres . A pendant drop of the polymer fluid is subjected to high voltages, typically 10– 20 kV, in order to generate a sufficient surface charge to overcome the surface tension, resulting in a two-dimensional membrane. Numerous research groups have made extensive use of electro spinning to create nanofibrillar matrices due to its simplicity . The application of polymer nanofibers in the tissue engineering of bone, blood vessel cartilage, cardiac tissue, the peripheral nerve system, ligaments, liver, and skin has been the subject of numerous studies. The majority of these studies made use of biodegradable polymer materials like PCL, PLA, PGA, and PLGA . Electro spinning has also been used to turn naturally occurring macromolecules like collagen, silk protein, fibrinogen, elastin, mimetic polypeptides, chitosan, dextran, and hyaluronic acid into nanofibers. It is anticipated that the resulting nanofibers will have a high axial strength and extreme flexibility. The high surface area, high porosity, and high spatial interconnectivity make it easier for cells and ECM to interact with one another and help regenerate tissue. During the process of tissue regeneration, cell migration and the movement of nutrients may be significantly influenced by the porosity.
As more potent and specific drugs are developed, drug delivery is becoming an increasingly important aspect of medicine, especially with the Human Genome Project’s increased understanding of disease pathways. There are new opportunities to treat and prevent diseases. This can be accomplished with the help of a wide range of biomaterials, the majority of which are polymer or lipid-based and offer a wide range of chemical options and the potential for further modification. Small-molecule drugs are no longer the only drugs that can be delivered. Through rationally designed delivery vehicles, the inherent limitations of therapeutic bio macromolecules like proteins and nucleic acids are being addressed. The original objective of drug delivery was to extend the duration of drug release; It now involves specialized systems made to achieve a particular level of spatial and temporal control; Drug delivery systems of the future will have “smart” bio sensing capabilities that will allow for unaided in vivo feedback control. The exciting multidisciplinary field of tissue engineering promises to produce exciting discoveries over time. The rational design of materials will likely be encouraged by advancements in nanometrescale characterization of materials and tissues. Recent AFM-based studies of single-molecule biomechanics, for instance, demonstrate that biological assemblies are dynamic entities that undergo local and global conformational changes as well as the disassembly and re-assembly of some subunits.
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