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 Deoxyribonucleic acid could be a molecule composed of 2 polynucleotide chains that coil around one another to create a spiral carrying genetic directions for the event, functioning, growth and copy of all famed organisms and lots of viruses. deoxyribonucleic acid and polymer (RNA) area unit nucleic acids. aboard proteins, lipids and sophisticated carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids area unit one in every of the four major forms of macromolecules that area unit essential for all famed kinds of life.   The two deoxyribonucleic acid strands area unit referred to as polynucleotides as they're composed of less complicated monomeric units known as nucleotides. every ester consists of 1 of 4 nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], purine [G], A [A] or pyrimidine [T]), a sugar known as carbohydrate, and a phosphate cluster. The esters area unit joined to at least one another during a chain by valence bonds (known because the phospho-diester linkage) between the sugar of 1 nucleotide and therefore the phosphate of future, leading to associate alternating sugar-phosphate backbone. The chemical element bases of the 2 separate polynucleotide strands area unit certain along, per base pairing rules (A with T and C with G), with atomic number 1 bonds to create double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid. The complementary chemical element bases area unit divided into 2 teams, pyrimidines and purines. In DNA, the pyrimidines area unit pyrimidine and cytosine; the purines area unit A and purine.  

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