Review Article - Journal of Agriculture (2023) Volume 6, Issue 5

Perception of Youth towards Agripreneurship with Reference to Ramanagara District of Karnataka

Corresponding Author:
Nagaraju LG
Department of Agriculture,
REVA University,

Received: 22-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. JAGRI-23-96774; Editor assigned: 24-Apr-2023, PreQC No. JAGRI-23-96774 (PQ); Reviewed: 08- May-2023, QC No. JAGRI-23-96774; Revised: 22-Jun-2023, Manuscript No. JAGRI-23-96774 (R); Published: 29-Jun-2023, DOI: 10.37532/ JAGRI.2023.6(5).136-144


India is one of the major performers in the agriculture sector worldwide and it is the primary source of livelihood for about 58% of India’s population. But most of the farmers are not completely employed in all 365 days it leads to increased number of people as unemployed who living in rural areas and they are migrating to urban areas in search of jobs in order to create full employment in agriculture. The agripreneurship, as a key figure in the economic progression of agrarian and developing societies, refers to entrepreneurship in agriculture. The concept of agricultural entrepreneurship was introduced to support young farmer’s as well agricultural industries by improving the means of production and increasing market engagements. This study highlights, the importance of agripreneurship and perception of youths towards agripreneurship.


Youths • Agriculture • Agripreneurship • Innovation • Entrepreneurship


Traditionally, agriculture was viewed as a way of life especially in the non-industrialized continents of Africa and Asia. The importance of an entrepreneurial culture in the agricultural sector has been identified in recent decades. Through the development of entrepreneurial and organizational competency, farmers can work in a systematized manner and develop sustainable competitive advantage which has enabled positive competition in regional, national and international markets [1]. Also, sustainable development of the agricultural land is determined by on the development of organizational and entrepreneurial competency in farmers.

Global forum for rural advisory services agripreneurship refers to the entrepreneurship in agriculture.

Agripreneurship, as a key figure in the economic progression of agrarian and developing societies, refers to entrepreneurship in agriculture. The concept of agricultural entrepreneurship was introduced to support farmer’s as well agricultural industries by improving the means of production and increasing market engagements. An agripreneurs is an entrepreneur whose business is agriculture or agriculture related [2]. A successful agripreneurs needs to understand consistency, creative thinking, smart working, risk taking, communication, and finding market opportunities.

Agripreneurship is a call to make agriculture an eye catching and profitable business enterprise. Agriculture possesses great scope for entrepreneurship and this can be harnessed by effective management of agri elements such as water, seed, soil and market needs. According to world bank, 2012, an agriculture and domestic business provide about 50% of employment in developing countries but fails to produce sufficient income to raise people out of poverty. Consequently, entrepreneurial actions associated with agriculture create solution for growing household income [3]. With good managerial skills and entrepreneurial expertise supported by government measures, the growing needs of agribusiness would be facilitated.

Agripreneurship contributes to national income, and direct occupation especially in rural areas. Value-added products provide entrepreneurs with larger return on investments and profits. Thus, agripreenurs have to take advantage of change in consumer demand and satisfy consumer’s needs with value added products.

Back ground of the study

In recent days, easy access to technology, emergence of micro financing, liberalized government rules, awareness and training programs on agri and allied sectors and finally changing mindset of highly qualified people to go for self-employment in the field of agriculture have contributed significantly in increasing the scope of Agripreneurship in India. Agripreneurship is greatly influenced mainly by the economic situation, education and culture reported that successful farmers differ from others in terms of three behavior traits. They have more belief in their ability to control events, problem solving abilities and social initiative [4]. Agripreneurs is a dynamic business manager performing various agri based activities using different resources viz. physical resources, financial resources, human resources and information, in order to accomplish a certain goal (Table 1).

Agriculture farm Tree farm Backyard plant nursery Vermicompost organic fertilizer production Dried flower business
Hydroponic retail store Mushroom farming Poultry farming Organic farm green house Fertilizer distribution business
Snail farming Sunflower farming Bee Keeping Fish farming Fruits and vegetables export
Florist Livestock feed production Broom production Basket weaving Flour milling
Groundnut/cashew-nut processing Piggery Chicks hatchery Medicinal herbs farming Dairy farming
Goat farming Jatropha farming Certified seed production Soil testing lab Rabbit farming
Agriculture consulting County chicken rearing Leasing agriculture equipment    

Table 1: Potential areas of agripreneurship development.

Enhancing agripreneurship through FPO

Small and marginal farmers in India have been exposed to risks in agricultural production. Several organizational examples are emerging to integrate them into the value chain with the objectives of enhancing incomes and reduction in transaction costs. One such alternative is Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs).

The agricultural sector in India is vulnerable by natural calamities and monsoon uncertainty. The absence of adequate marketing infrastructure, presence of middleman, lack of collectivization effort leads to grab less marketing opportunities and earnings [5]. To overcome this situation, the concept of Farmer Producer Organization (FPO) was developed and implemented.

The basic purpose envisioned for the FPOs is to collectivize small farmers for backward linkage for inputs like seeds, fertilizers, credit, insurance, knowledge and extension services; and forward linkages such as collective marketing, processing and market led agriculture production.

To facilitate this process, the Small Farmers Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) was mandated by department of agriculture and cooperation, ministry of agriculture, govt. of India, to support the state governments in the formation of Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs). The aim is to enhance farmer’s competitiveness and increase their advantage in emerging market opportunities (Table 2).

District Taluk FPO name and address Major crops
Ramanagara Magadi Srigiripura HFPCL, Srigiripura Ridge gourd, tomato, snake gourd
Channapatna Gombeyanadu HFPC Ltd. Banana, ladies finger, papaya, tomato
Kanakapura Sangama HFPCL, I-Gollahalli Banana, coconut, papaya
Channapatna Kengal HFPCL, Bhairapattana Coconut and tomato
Ramanagar Arkavathy HFPCL, Kailancha Vegetables and mango
Magadi Chakrabavi HFPCL Tomato, banana, papaya, brinjal
Ramanagar Ramanagara Zilla mango and coconut crop FPC Ltd Mango

Table 2: FPO in ramanagara district.

Scope of the study

Agricultural products are having huge demand as the days pass as well as trends towards agricultural performance is increasing day by day. Due to COVID-19 outbreak many of the youths who migrated from village to urban for jobs, they de migrated to their villages and started agriculture and allied sectors activities. The study is designed and conducted to study the importance of agripreneurship for agriculture sector development and find the perception on youth towards role of agripreneurship with special reference to ramanagara district.

Importance of the study

The importance of agripreneur development In research that was conducted in 2015, the world bank established that: Only 10%–12% of small farmers were able to access vital extension services, mainly because large farms were crowding out the smaller farmers access to key benefits; small farmers focused on their own livelihood needs first and not on their farms as enterprises; and any extension support that small farmers received was geared towards improving productivity and not towards improving profitability to make sure that their livelihoods were sustainable.

Agripreneurship plays various roles in the growth and development of national economy through entrepreneurship development which increases the returns and employment opportunities in rural as well as urban areas agripreneurship also support social and economic development, reduction in poverty index and ensure good nutrition and food security [6]. In addition, it will allow for the diversification of the economy and income bases by providing employment and entrepreneurial opportunities.

Need of agripreneurship

∎ Agricultural and horticultural products are locally available.
∎ These small scale industries do not require huge infrastructure and complex scientific technologies.
∎ These small scale Industries are economically viable and ecologically sustainable too.
∎ These enterprises do not require huge expenditure.
∎ Agripreneurship development has huge potential of creating new employment opportunities for rural youth.
∎ Agripreneurship helps in checking migration of rural youth from villages to urban centers and helps in improving living condition of farmers by providing alternative source of income.
∎ Availability of land for agricultural purposes.
∎ Requirement of funds for agricultural activities.
∎ Requirement of literate and educated population.
∎ Both backward and forward inducements and linkages of agricultural development for industrial development.

Literature Review

GC-MS analysis

Sudharani defined agripreneurship as “generally sustainable, community oriented, directly marketed agriculture. Sustainable agriculture denotes a holistic, systems oriented approach to farming that focuses on the interrelationships of social, economic and environmental process.”

Dollinger stated that entrepreneurship in agriculture is the creation of innovative economic organization for the purpose of growth or gain under conditions of risk and uncertainty in agriculture.

Alsos, et al., viewed employing new entrepreneurial activities in agriculture was relatively easy because farmers generally had many useful resources at their disposal such as: Land, buildings, machinery, labour, networks, etc. Access to good resources alone was, however, not a guarantee for success [7]. It all depends on the farmers’ entrepreneurial abilities to access, see the potential of, and use the resources available.

Sah explained that agripreneurship played the following roles in the economic system. It helped in inducing better yield by smallholder farmers, integrated them into local, national and universal markets, helped in reducing food costs, supply uncertainties and improved the diets of the rural and urban poor in the country. It also generated growth, increasing and diversifying income and providing entrepreneurial opportunities in both rural and urban areas.

Muhammad found that socioeconomic characteristics of the youths inclined the attitude of youth towards agriculture as a career. Parental motivation, religious values and beliefs of the family inculcated into a child influenced the youth to take particular career [8]. It was also observed that gender positively and significantly influenced youth attitude towards agriculture. Majority of the males (68.4 percent) compared to females (17.7 percent) respondents shown positive attitude towards agriculture as a career.

Muhammad found that socioeconomic characteristics of the youths inclined the attitude of youth towards agriculture as a career. Parental motivation, religious values and beliefs of the family inculcated into a child influenced the youth to take particular career. It was also observed that gender positively and significantly influenced youth attitude towards agriculture. Majority of the males (68.4 percent) compared to females (17.7 percent) respondents shown positive attitude towards agriculture as a career.

White in his study found that new age group of rural young men and women grows up, better educated than their parents but their growth was not matched with expansion of employment opportunities. He also found that small-scale agriculture has the potential to remain the biggest source of employment in the future.

Saili, Jaili and Hamzah conducted study on dissecting factors causing active behaviour associated with continuity of youth participation in agripreneurship. Quantitative study carried out among the departments revealed that two major group of behavior namely psychological and economic factors dictated the acceptance of youth towards agripreneurship.


∎ To study the importance of agripreneurship for agriculture development.
∎ To understand attitude and perception of Youth towards agripreneurship.


Selection of the district: The populations of the study include youth in the Ramanagara district of Karnataka (Figure 1).


Figure 1: Ramanagara district map.

Ramanagar town is situated along Bengaluru- Mysuru state highway no.17 at a distance of 50 km from Bengaluru. The town is located about 622.80 meters above the sea level and receptive of an average rainfall of 931.58 mm annually. The Area is around 3,556 km (1,373). The district has a population density of 303 inhabitants per square kilometre (780). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 5.06 percent. The gross domestic product of ramanagar is 4930.21 crores. The per capita is Rs. 39472. Ramanagar has a gender ratio of 976 females for every 1000 males and a literacy rate of 69.20 percent (Table 3).

Taluks No. of hoblies No of villages Total population
Ramanagar 4 133 266614
Kanakapura 6 259 350877
Channapatna 3 145 261304
Magadi 5 286 203841
Total 1082636

Table 3: District profile.

As per the state and district domestic product of Karnataka 2014-2015, ramanagara district contributes 2.6% of share from agriculture and allied (agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry and fishing) 172097 Ha of net sown area with a 48.35% of total geographical area (Table 4).

Sl No Name of the program Objectives of the program
1 National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) Sustainable best farming practices, soil conservation, moisture protection, soil nutrient management and Sustainable water management.
2 Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) Crop insurance system.
3 Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY) Irrigation and improving water use efficiency
4 Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) Encouraging traditional and organic farming in India.
5 Micro irrigation fund scheme To install small and micro irrigation systems.
6 Mission organic value chain development for North Eastren region Certified organic production and linking farmers with consumers.
7 E-NAM Connecting agricultural mandis to online trading agricultural commodities.
8 Kisan credit card Farm credit with a subsidized rate of 4% PA
9 Soil health card Conserving and maintaining soil nutrient and soil fertility
10 PM kisan samman nidhi yojana Rs. 6000 per annum financial needs to small and marginal farmers for buying agricultural inputs.

Table 4: Programs and schemes implemented to boost agripreneurship in the district.

Sources of data

The present study incorporates the collection of both primary and secondary data for in depth investigation. Primary data are collected with the help of structured questionnaire and personal interview from the sample of 100 youth from Ramanagara district. Secondary data are also used in the study which consists of journals in agriculture, magazines and reports from department of agriculture and farmer welfare department and reports of projects and studies conducted by many experts and researchers.

Tools of data collection

Structure questionnaire will be distributed among agripreneurs in order to collect data. Analyses of data are done using percentage analysis.

Methods of data collection

The study was descriptive in nature and used both primary and secondary data. Purposive sampling frame was used and survey method is adopted for the study. Accordingly, four taluks of Ramanagara district were selected. Names of Taluks are Magadi, Ramanagara, Channapattana and Kanakapura, from each taluks five villages are selected randomly.

Sampling frame is as follows:

Total number of districts=1
Total number of taluks=4
Total sample respondents: 4 x 25=100


Analysis of data

Ramanagara is the district separated from Bangalore rural district in the year 2007. It is having four major Taluks. The above Table 6 presents each taluks agripreneurship data, among four taluks more number of agripreneurship (34%) are located in Ramanagara. This obviously recalls the district headquarters are having all facilities to attract more agripreenurs (Tables 5 and 6).

Particulars Frequency Percent
Kanakapura 16 16
Channapattana 21 21
Magadi 24 24
Ramanagara 34 34
Total 100 100

Table 5: Respondents profile based on Taluk.

Particulars M Percentage F Percentage
Kanakapura 13 15.48 3 18.75
Channapattana 17 20.24 3 18.75
Magadi 20 23.81 2 12.5
Ramanagara 34 40.48 8 50
Total 84 100 16 100

Table 6: Genders of respondents.

The findings of the survey revealed that 84% of Male respondents are agriculture entrepreneurs among four taluks. In India more number of agri workers are women’s but when it comes to agriculture entrepreneurship only 16% of women’s are owners of agribusiness. Women’s are like to be supporters in agriculture (Table 7).

Particulars 15-25 Percentage 25-35 Percentage
Kanakapura 2 15.38 14 16.09
Channapattana 3 23.08 18 20.69
Magadi 5 38.46 19 21.84
Ramanagara 3 23.08 31 35.63
Total 13 100 87 16.09

Table 7: Age of Respondents.

It is evident from the Table 5 that majority (87 percent) of the youth respondent from all four Taluks belonged to the age group of 25-35 years. Only 13% of the respondents were from the age group of less than 25 years. It is encouraging to note that majority of the youths chosen agriculture after 25 years with some experience and knowledge about agripreneurship and hence it is presumed that majority of youngsters (below 25 years)are not showing much interest on agriculture (Table 8).

Particulars 1-12th Percentage Degree Percentage PG Percentage
Kanakapura 7 19.4 5 15.63 4 16
Channapattana 9 25 7 21.88 5 20
Magadi 14 38.9 4 12.5 2 8
Ramanagara 20 55.6 10 31.25 4 16
Total   100   100   100

Table 8: Educational level of respondents.

It is evident from Table 8. That half of the respondents had secondary education (55.0 percent) followed by degree (31.00 percent) and post-graduation (16 percent). More youth agripreenurs are near the city because availability of resources. It is encouraging to note that less education makes/creates farmers. People who received good education they moving to metro cities for 9 to 5 jobs (Table 9).

Particulars Kanakapura Percentage Channapattana Percentage Magadi Percentage Ramanagara Percentage
Only agriculture 4 25 4 19 4 16.7 9 26.47
Agriculture and allied 9 56.25 12 57.1 14 58.3 18 52.94
9 to 5 Job with agriculture 3 18.75 5 23.8 6 25 7 20.59
Total 16 100 21 100 24 100 34 100

Table 9: Occupation of respondents

In India more than 50% of workers are still depends on agriculture with various reason, the Table 10 showing youths, are not only depends on agriculture because agriculture not creating job or revenue in all 365 days in a year. Youths are managing both agriculture and allied activities (animal husbandry, poultry, fisheries, piggary etc. for better income, the above table also reveals that 25% of respondents are working and managing agriculture with family members support (Parents, wife and children’s etc).

Particulars Kanakapura Percentage Channapattana Percentage Magadi Percentage Ramanagara Percentage
Friends and neighbors 9 56.25 4 19.05 8 33.3 10 29.4
Print media/Krishi darshan 4 25 10 47.62 4 16.7 8 23.5
FPO 2 12.5 7 33.33 12 50 16 47.1
Total 16 100 21 100 24 100 34 100

Table 10: Sources of agripreneurship Information

An agribusiness tends to focus on the important constituent of the value chain viz., production, processing, marketing and exports. It is prominent from the Table 11 that majority (37 percent) of the respondent youth were involved in farmers producers organizations for establishment and agriculture business, 26% of Youths are inspiring from the television program like Krishi darshana which is always highlighting the success stories of agripreenurs among the state with opportunities in agriculture.

Particulars Kanakapura Percentage Channapattana Percentage Magadi Percentage Ramanagara Percentage
Agriculture as good future 4 25 6 28.5 6 25 8 23.5
Not have good education 6 37.5 8 38.1 7 29 6 17.6
Proud to be a farmer 1 6.25 4 19 2 8 4 11.7
I don’t like to keep land empty 0 0 2 9.5 3 13 6 17.6
I enjoy do farming 2 12.5 0 0 1 4 4 11.7
Good profit 3 18.7 1 4.7 5 21 6 17.6
Total 16 100 21 100 24 100 34 100

Table 11: Reasons for choosing agripreneurship.

The overall analysis of reasons of choosing agripreneurship, 37.5 % of youth in kanakapura taluk, 38% of Channapattana taluk, 29% of Magadi taluk and 17.65 % of Ramanagara youths are expressed that less education creates more agripreenurs, in the agrarian economy like India 11% of district youths are expressed that farmers are having respect in society (Table 12).

Particulars Kanakapura Percentage Channapattana Percentage Magadi Percentage Ramanagara Percentage
Lack of available training facility 2 12.5 3 14.29 3 13 4 11.8
Challenges in accessing agricultural market 2 12.5 4 19.05 4 17 3 8.8
Lack of agriculture labors 4 25 6 28.57 8 33 14 41.2
Division of land. (Small and fragmented land-holdings) 4 25 4 19.05 4 17 6 17.6
Climate change/ Bad weather changes 1 6.25 2 9.52 2 8 3 8.8
Lack of agriculture inputs 1 6.25 0 0 1 4 2 5.9
No good profit 3 18.75 2 9.52 2 8 2 5.9
Total 16 100 21 100 24 100 34 100

Table 12: Challenges faced by youths in agriculture.

Indian farmers are surrounded with various problems, the Ramanagara district alone the 32% of youths expressed divisions of small and fragmented land is the biggest problems in farming, because they become small and marginal farmers, with less than 2 hector of land and they can’t produce more output. Those farmers are close to district and taluk are facing fewer problems in terms of market connectivity and supply cain.


Most of the educated youth find agriculture as an unattractive preposition; especially the way it is practiced and recognized. When specific youth policies do exist in developing countries, they often do not cater for rural youth or not properly executed. Consequently, There is growing dissatisfaction among rural youth towards agriculture and tend to migrate to cities to do even unskilled jobs. It can be conducted that youth are having awareness about agripreneurship from various government programs and some of the young generations are believing future depends on agriculture and major problems are, market accessibility and no continuous income if youths are not engaging allied sectors. The study shows that majority of less educated youths are depending on agriculture it not leads to more innovation and adaption of mechanizations, plans and policies are required to attract more educated and innovative youths towards agriculture.


∎ Tier 1 and tier 2 cities have more connectivity with agriculture entrepreneurs.
∎ Among all the four districts of Ramanagara 84% of category of farmers are in male category, women’s are in minority.
∎ Selection of agriculture depends on age category, in this survey 87% of youth who carrying agriculture and allied activities are from the age group of 25-35. The unsuccessful, underpaid workers are return to villages for doing agriculture.
∎ There is a direct relationship between education and agriculture 55% of the youths in this survey expressed that, less education not giving better career in any other sectors except agriculture.
∎ More agripreenurs are interested to engage both agriculture and allied sectors because allied sectors like animal husbandry, fisheries, floriculture, poultry are giving better incomes to youth’s agripreenurs.
∎ Government introduced agripreneurship for making farmers financially independent, in these days, most of the farmers are attracted towards agriculture business through krishi channels in televisions and farmers producers organizations.
∎ Around 25% of the young farmers are attracting towards agripreneurship because future is agriculture and growing populations need food grains.
∎ Lack of laborers, divisions of lands and market connectivity is the biggest challenges faced by the farmers today.


∎ More loans. Credit facilities and Insurance policies are attracted youths towards agriculture.
∎ Farmers Producer Organizations (FPO) is acting as a link between the government and farmers to work as a single goal to put Indian agricultural on top of the global market.
∎ PM-Kisan yojana scheme make small farmers to happy in engaging agriculture activities. But most of the small and marginal farmers are out of this benefit because land records are in litigations.
∎ Government needs to include more agriculture training centers at Taluk level.
∎ Most of the parents are not encouraging their children’s to continue the agriculture activities because no regular income from the agriculture.


The sample selected for the study is very small and restricted to only one district. The limitation of the sample will affect the study. Only limited factors are selected for the understanding youth perceptions about Agripreneurship. The study can be conducted in the whole state or in India.