Review Article - Imaging in Medicine (2023) Volume 15, Issue 3

Facial nerve imaging: A contemporary review

Roehm Pamela*

Department of Otolaryngology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA


*Corresponding Author:
Roehm Pamela
Department of Otolaryngology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA


Received: 1-May-2023, Manuscript No. FMIM-23-92006; Editor assigned: 3-May-2023, Pre QC No. FMIM-23-92006(PQ); Reviewed: 17- May-2023, QC No. FMIM-23-92006; Revised: 22-May-2023, Manuscript No. FMIM-23-92006(R); Published: 29-May-2023; DOI: 10.37532/1755- 5191.2023.15(3).47-49


Imaging plays a basic part within the assessment of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve incorporates a complex anatomical course; hence, a intensive understanding of the course of the facial nerve is fundamental to localize the destinations of pathology. Facial nerve brokenness can happen from assortment of causes, which can frequently be distinguished on imaging. Computed tomography and attractive reverberation imaging are supportive for distinguishing hard facial canal and delicate tissue anomalies, separately. Ultrasound of the facial nerve has been utilized to anticipate utilitarian results in patients with Bell’s paralysis. More as of late, dissemination tensor tractography has showed up as a unused methodology which allows three-dimensional show of facial nerve filaments. Imaging plays an important role within the assessment of facial nerve disarranges. The facial nerve encompasses a complex anatomical course, and brokenness can be due to intrinsic, incendiary, irresistible, traumatic, and neoplastic etiologies. Computed tomography is valuable for recognizing hard anomalies of the intratemporal facial nerve, which can happen with innate mutations, injury, and cholesteatoma. Attractive Reverberation Imaging (MRI) is valuable for recognizing delicate tissue anomalies around the facial nerve, as seen in provocative clutters, neoplasms, and hemifacial fit.


Facial Nerve• Medical Imaging • Disorders • Hemifacial


Facial nerve ultrasound has been utilized in a later think about to foresee utilitarian results in Bell’s paralysis. Dissemination Tensor (DT) Tractography, which uses MRI to create Three- Dimensional (3D) reproductions of the facial nerve, has as of late been created. This method has been appeared to be possibly valuable within the distinguishing proof uprooting of cranial nerve strands by vestibular schwannomas. In all cases, choice of the imaging methodology utilized ought to be decided by specifics of the patient’s side effects and the differential determination. In this paper we depict the improvement and life systems of the facial nerve, at that point radiographic procedures utilized in facial nerve assessment, and at last the pathologic substances that influence the facial nerve. The facial nerve is composed of engine, tangible, and parasympathetic strands. Total partition of the facial and acoustic nerves and improvement of the nervus intermedius (or nerve of Wrisberg) happens by 6 weeks of incubation. By the 16th week, the neural associations are totally created. The hard facial canal creates until birth, encasing the facial nerve in bone all through its course but at the facial hiatus (the location of the geniculate ganglion) within the floor of the center cranial fossa. As it were distinction between the life systems of the facial nerve in newborn children compared with adults is within the locale of the stylomastoid foramen. As the mastoid tip creates, the extratemporal facial nerve is situated in a more second rate and average position [1, 2].


Facial engine strands begin from cell bodies found within the precentral and postcentral gyri of the frontal engine cortex. These filaments travel within the back appendage of the inside capsule inferiorly to the caudal pons. There, the engine filaments providing the facial musculature underneath the brows cross the midline to reach the contralateral engine core within the reticular arrangement of the lower pons (front to the fourth ventricle). The larger part of engine filaments that supply the musculature of the temple moreover cross the midline; in any case, some strands don't, instep traveling within the ipsilateral engine core. Hence, muscles of the temple get innervation from both sides of the engine cortex, and so forehead-sparing facial deadens can be characteristic of a central etiology. The engine filaments the pass dorsally, circle medial-to-lateral around the abducens core, and make the facial colliculus, which bulges into the floor of the fourth ventricle. This circle of the facial nerve shapes the inside genu of the facial nerve. The nervus intermedius contains tangible, extraordinary tactile and parasympathetic filaments. It gives sensation to the back concha and outside sound-related canal [3, 4].

The nervus intermedius uncommon tangible filaments supply taste sensation to the front twothirds of the tongue. The afferent strands neural connection with cell bodies within the geniculate ganglion at the primary genu of the facial nerve. These tangible afferents at that point connect the parasympathetic fibers, passing through the nervus intermedius to the core tractus solitarius within the medulla. The parasympathetic parcel of the nervus intermedius starts within the predominant salivatory core within the dorsal pons and gives the secretomotor work of the ipsilateral lacrimal organ, submandibular organs, sublingual organs, and minor salivary organs [5, 6].

Both the engine root of the facial nerve and the nervus intermedius take off the brainstem close the dorsal pons at the pontomedullary intersection (the cisternal fragment of the facial nerve). Inside The Cerebello Pontine Point (CPA), the nerve voyages anterolaterally into the porus acousticus of the Inner Sound-Related Canal (IAC), front to the vestibulocochlear nerve. This section is 24 mm. The nervus intermedius either joins the engine root because it develops from the brainstem or close the meatus of the IAC. The facial nerve runs within the anteriorsuperior quadrant of the IAC. At the horizontal conclusion of the IAC, even section of bone (the transverse of falciform peak) isolates the facial nerve from the cochlear nerve inferiorly. Inside this region of the IAC, a vertical section of bone (Bill’s bar) isolates the facial nerve from the posteriorly found prevalent vestibular nerve [7].


The front second rate Cerebellar Supply Route (AICA) emerges from the basilar artery near the intersection of the pons and medulla. The AICA can have a variable course and region. The AICA runs inside the IAC and is habitually in nearness with the nerve inside the IAC. In a few cases, the AICA may run within the IAC between the facial and vestibule cochlear nerve. The blood supply to this locale of the facial nerve is the overly complex supply route, a department of AICA [8].

The hard facial nerve canal (or fallopian canal) starts as the facial nerve exits the IAC at the fundus. The major blood supply for the facial nerve proximally inside the canal is the shallow petrosal course, a department of the center meningeal supply route. The stylomastoid course supplies the fallopian canal distally. The hard canal has three sections: overly complex, tympanic, and mastoid. The overly complex fragment runs from the fundus of the IAC to the geniculate ganglion. It is both the tightest (< 0.7 mm breadth) and most limited (3-5 mm length) portion of the facial nerve. The overly complex fragment voyages anterior-laterally from the IAC and predominant to the cochlea until it comes to the geniculate ganglion [9, 10].



Conflict of Interest



  1. Muenzer J. Early initiation of enzyme replacement therapy for the mucopolysaccharidoses. Mol Genet Metab. 111, 63-72 (2014).
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  3. Concolino D, Federica Deodato F, Parin R. Enzyme replacement therapy: Efficacy and limitations. Ital J Pediatr. 44, 120 (2018).
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  5. Tomatsu S, Alméciga Díaz CJ, Montaño AM et al. Therapies for the bone in mucopolysaccharidoses. Mol Genet Metab. 114, 94-109 (2015).
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  7. Al-Sannaa NA, Bay L, Barbouth DS et al. Early treatment with laronidase improves clinical outcomes in patients with attenuated MPS I: A retrospective case series analysis of nine sibships. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 10, 131 (2015).
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  9. Chuang CK, Lin HY, Wang TJ et al. Status of newborn screening and follow up investigations for Mucopolysaccharidoses I and II in Taiwan. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 13, 84 (2018).
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  11. Harrison SM, Heidi L, Rehm HL. Is ‘likely pathogenic’ really 90% likely? Reclassification data in ClinVar. Genome Med.11, 72 (2019).
  12. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  13. Lin HY, Tu RY, Chern SR et al. Identification and functional characterization of IDS gene mutations underlying Taiwanese Hunter Syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type II). Int J Mol Sci. 21, 114 (2020).
  14. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  15. Chuang CK, Lin HY, Wang TJ et al. A modified liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for predominant disaccharide units of urinary glycosaminoglycans in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 9, 135 (2014).
  16. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  17. Lin HY, Lo YT, Wang TJ et al. Normalization of glycosaminoglycan-derived disaccharides detected by tandem mass spectrometry assay for the diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis. Sci Rep. 9, 10755 (2019).
  18. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  19. Chuang CK, Lin SP, Chung SF. Diagnostic Screening for Mucopolysaccharidoses by the Dimethylmethylene Blue Method and Two Dimensional Electrophoresis. Chin Med J.  64, 15-22 (2001).
  20. Indexed at, Google Scholar

Awards Nomination 20+ Million Readerbase

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

Google Scholar citation report
Citations : 4878

Imaging in Medicine received 4878 citations as per Google Scholar report

Imaging in Medicine peer review process verified at publons

Indexed In