Immunopathology: The Study of How the Immune System Causes DiseaseAuthor(s): Ralley E Prentice
Immunopathology is the study of how the immune system responds to pathogens and other foreign substances and how this response can lead to disease. In this study, we investigated the cytokine levels, T cell subsets, and immune cell infiltration in patients with autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and multiple sclerosis (MS). We found that the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-) were significantly higher in patients with RA and SLE compared to healthy controls, while the levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-Î³) were significantly higher in patients with MS. We also observed significant alterations in the proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the peripheral blood of patients with RA, SLE, and MS. Additionally, we found increased immune cell infiltration in the synovial tissue of patients with RA, skin biopsy samples of patients with SLE, and brain biopsy samples of patients with MS. Our results suggest that different autoimmune diseases have distinct immunopathological mechanisms that involve cytokine dysregulation, alterations in T cell subsets, and immune cell infiltration. These findings may have important implications for the development of new therapies for these diseases.