Hypertension in Urban Areas: Hypertension Risk Factors in the Community of Banjar Pengiasan, Dauh Puri Kauh Village, West Denpasar Municipality, Bali

Author(s): Yogi Pramana

Hypertension is a serious medical condition that increases the risk of other diseases such as heart, kidney and brain disease and is a leading cause of premature death worldwide. Differences in the demographics, customs and habits of the people in an area result in differences in the main risk factor for hypertension. Based on data from Profile Non- Communicable Disease Indonesia in 2018, Bali has the highest prevalence of hypertension among the southeastern islands of the Indonesia country, which is 18.7%. Based on Bali Province Health Profile in 2018, Denpasar municipality has the second highest prevalence of hypertension in Bali, which is 16.7%. West Denpasar Primary Health Care Center II has the highest cases of hypertension in Denpasar Municipality. Banjar Pengiasan has the most cases of hypertension in the service area of West Denpasar Primary Health Care Center II with 286 cases. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for hypertension among the people in the Banjar Pengiasan community. We used a community based cross-sectional study with a sample of 125 people selected using simple random sampling was conducted among adults 30 years and older living in Banjar Pengiasan in July until October 2019. The study collected data on sociodemographic, stress, food and physical activity using questionnaire. The questionnaires used were the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, 24-Hour Food Recall, and International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Anthropometric, blood pressure, and total blood cholesterol measurements were performed following standard procedures. Multiple logistic regression was used for analysis and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to identify risk factors associated with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was 67.2%. The logistic regression analysis shows age [OR=18.576 (CI95% 2.955-116.782)], family history [OR=10.480 (CI95% 1.106-99.288)], total blood cholesterol [OR=12.628 (CI 95% 2.406-66.279)], obesity [OR=4.750 (CI95% 1.240-20.060)], salt consumption [OR=6.069 (CI95% 1.162-31.689)], physical activity [OR=9.191 (CI95% 1.360-62.108)] and coffee consumption [OR=5.833 (CI95% 1.031-33.009)] significantly associated with hypertension. Non-risk factors for hypertension include smoking, sex, and stress. Smoking is not a risk factor for hypertension as the majority of the sample were female whereas smoking is generally done by men. The majority smokers in this study used filter cigarettes. Sex and stress are not risk factors for hypertension because all variables were analyzed simultaneously and there were other variables that were stronger risk factors for hypertension. In this study, it was found that being >60years age, high total blood cholesterol, family history, low physical activity, high salt consumption, coffee consumption, and obesity are risk factors for hypertension. With these hypertension risk factors having been identified, it is expected that preventive efforts can be made to reduce the prevalence of hypertension