Assessment of phytochemical, antibacterial and antidiabetic properties of extract of luffa cylindrica

Author(s): Asoso Oluwakemi Sola, Egbebi Adeola Oluwagbemileke, Okiki Pius Abimbola Obajuluwa Adejoke, Afolabi Olakunle Bamidele & Abduhalli Mohammed Ahmad

Traditional medicine also known as indigenous or folk medicine comprises of knowledge systems that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine. Plants are generally used for treatment of bacterial infections though they are not clinically regulated due to lack of awareness and enough data to support the reported therapeutic claims. The aim of this research was to investigate chemical composition, antidiabetic and antibacterial activities of Luffa cylindrica. The proximate composition of Luffa cylindica leaf and stem were carried out. There was a relatively high carbohydrate content but Luffa cylindrica stem had the highest percentage of carbohydrate content. The leaf had a low fat content but the stem had the lowest percentage. The luffa leaf had more protein content than the stem and also the crude fiber content of luffa stem was higher than the leaf. The ash content of luffa leaf is relatively higher than the stem. The quantitative analysis of Luffa cylindrica indicated that alkaloids were highly present, flavonoids, tannins, antioxidant ORAC, terpenoids, saponins, steroids, oxylates, phytates and there was a very low presence of cardiac glucosides and phenols. The metal composition of luffa leaf and stem was carried out and the result indicated the presence of Ca+, Fe++, Mg+,Zn+, Mn+, K+, Po+ but Ca+ had the highest presence and Zn+ had the lowest presence in the metal composition of Luffa leaf and stem. The alpha glucosidase and amylase in-vitro anti-diabetic test was carried out. This was done to check for antidiabetic constituents of Luffa cylindrica leaf and stem of which Luffa cylindrica stem shows more antidiabetic contents than the leaf. Antibacterial effect of methanol extract of Luffa cylindrica leaf and stem was carried out on some bacterial isolates (Salmonella typhi ATCC 13311, Shigella dysentariae ATCC 49556, E. coli ATCC 35928, Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

Based on the results obtained in this research study, it can be said that the plant has a good antidiabetic efficacy. However, there is need for good hygiene practice during preparation.