The cause of leptospirosis
is bacteria (species interrogans and genus Leptospira), a Gram-negative spirochete (spiral-shaped bacteria). The Leptospira bacteria contaminate many types of animals (many wild animals, dogs, rodents, cats, pigs, cattle, horses, for example) that eventually contaminate lakes, water, soil, rivers, and crops when they urinate because the bacteria are present in urine. The bacteria then contaminate humans when they occupy through breaks in the skin or mucus membranes or when people ingest them. The bacteria multiply in the kidneys, liver, and central nervous system. Person-to-person convey of this disease is rare. In general, human leptospirosis
is considered weakly contagious. This is because, like other animals, humans can barn leptospirosis
in the urine after and during illness. Consequently, individuals exposed to the urine of humans who are infected may become infected.
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