The action of enzymes during metabolic process, produces chemical changes in organic substrates it is termed as fermentation. Broadly speaking, it is a metabolic cycle in which an organism converts a carbohydrate, such as starch or sugar, into an alcohol or acid. In biochemistry, in the absence of oxygen, it is specifically characterized as the extraction of energy from carbohydrates.More generally, it is often used to refer to the bulk growth of microorganisms on a growth medium, often with the intention of producing a particular chemical product. Fermentation enables the creation of energy without the use of oxygen and can be used to produce eatables. Fermentation in microorganisms is the primary means of production (ATP) through anaerobic degradation of organic nutrients.

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