Cardiorespiratory

 Integration of the cardiorespiratory system is mutual. It is possible to identify and quantify both effects, that of respiration on the cardiovascular activity and that of the arterial pressure pulse on respiratory activity. However, the role of cardiorespiratory coupling remains obscure in homeostasis and pathophysiology. An intriguing aspect of the cardiorespiratory control system is the plasticity of cardiorespiratory coupling evoked by hypoxia; it draws our attention to limited knowledge about translating increased sympathetic nerve activity into vascular dynamics and hypertension. Education in cardiorespiratory exercise is effective in minimizing exertional dyspnea, which is the most common symptom of COPD and leads to physical weakness and reduction of operation. Pulmonary rehabilitation activities include cardiorespiratory endurance training with overground or treadmill walking, leg cycling, and arm cycling for larger muscle groups. Most patients, however, have trouble tolerating arm cycling because it improves ventilation drive and makes dyspnea much worse. Exercises of resistance and flexibility can improve functional capacity. The patient will be closely supervised initially by individuals supervising the exercise program.

 

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