By definition, a bioreactor may be a vessel during which a biological reaction or change takes place. The biological systems involved include enzymes, microorganisms, animal cells, plant cells, and tissues. The bioreactor may be a place where an optimum external environment is provided to satisfy the requirements of the biological reaction system in order that a high yield of the bioprocess is achieved. Obviously, there are complicated interactions between the biological system and therefore the physical and chemical aspects of this process. To design an appropriate bioreactor for a specific bioprocess, intensive studies on the biological system, like cell growth and metabolism, genetic manipulation, and protein or other product expression are needed to understand the cells’ requirement on their physical and chemical environment. A variety of bioreactor types and configurations have thus been exploited and developed along with the advances in the understanding of biological systems. In addition, it is necessary to control the bioreactor's operating parameters in order to favor the desired functions of the living cells or enzymes. Dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, temperature, mixing, and supplementation of nutrients all got to be controlled and optimized. Because two distinct bodies of data , namely, biology and process engineering, are involved and therefore the bioreactor is that the core of the bioprocess, a scientific science-based approach to studying bioreactors is required and therefore the term “bioreactor engineering” .  

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