Mini Review - Annals of Clinical Trials and Vaccines Research (2022) Volume 12, Issue 4

Diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound.

Alfredo Tirdo*

School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Lombardy, Italy

*Corresponding Author:
Alfredo Tirdo School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Lombardy, ItalyTel: +397634757982E-mail:

Received: 04-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. actvr-22-72089; Editor Assigned: 08-Aug-2022, PreQC No. actvr-22-72089 (PQ); Reviewed: 18- Aug-2022, QC No. actvr-22-72089; Revised: 25-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. actvr-22-72089 (R); Published: 31-Aug-2022, DOI: 10.37532/ actvr.2022.12(4).78-81


Hepatobiliary disease patients are evaluated by endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). In some cases of portal hypertension, the procedure can be used to diagnose esogastric varies and assess the prognostic significance of the collateral circulation in individuals with this condition. When used in conjunction with the Doppler method, EUS can be utilised to direct injectable sclerotherapy and to confirm that varies (especially fundal varies) have been eliminated after endoscopic treatment. Doppler-EUS can also be used to measure the hemodynamic changes caused in the collateral circulation by vasoactive medications. In order to diagnose localised liver lesions, per hepatic adenopathy, and to assess biliary tract illnesses, fine-needle aspiration under EUS guidance is helpful. Future development of new indications is possible with sufficient experimental validation.

Despite receiving the most standard therapy possible, pancreatic adenocarcinoma is an aggressive cancer with terrible prognoses. Therefore, in order to give new pathways of care, the treatment of this malignancy necessitates the employment of creative tactics in addition to established medicines. Here, we report a method for directly injecting both cutting-edge and established treatments into pancreatic cancers utilising endoscopic ultrasonography. We go into detail about the justification for this tactic as well as all the advantages it offers. Then, we go into great detail about our approach, including how we injected the AdV-tk adenoviral vector to produce an in situ vaccination effect.

nephropathy • contrast ultrasound • molecular imaginggene delivery mediated by Ultrasound


Currently, endoscopic resection (ER) is recognised as a curative, minimally invasive treatment for early gastric cancer (EGC). The Japanese Gastric Cancer Treatment Guidelines state that a mucosal lesion that is less than 2 cm in size and free of ulceration qualifies as an indication for ER. The guidelines have, however, further broadened the indications for ER to include the following groups, which have very low chances of lymph node metastasis: (1) differentiated, mucosal cancer lesions larger than 2 cm without ulcerative features (2) Differentiated lesions 3 cm in size with sub mucosal invasion of less than 500 m (3) Undifferentiated lesions 2 cm; (4) Differentiated lesions 3 cm in size with ulcerative features. Determining the depth of stomach cancer invasion accurately will therefore become more crucial as the therapy approach is chosen.

One of the diagnostic techniques for assessing the extent of stomach cancer invasion is endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). In this investigation, the effectiveness of EUS in assessing the degree of stomach cancer invasion and its relevance in choosing therapeutic approach were assessed. One of the most terrible diseases, pancreatic cancer still has a low long-term survival rate. Therefore, the creation of a technique for detecting pancreatic cancer at an early stage when it is treatable is urgently required. The most accurate method for identifying tiny pancreatic cancers is endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). But it’s still challenging to tell pancreatic tumours apart from inflammatory tumor-like lumps. Using ultrasonography contrast to assess vascularity may help distinguish between cancerous and benign tumours.

Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography (CH-EUS), a novel method, has been shown to help distinguish pancreatic cancer from other pancreatic disorders by observing both parenchymal perfusion and microvasculature in the pancreas. In this essay, we’ll outline the creation of a novel technology called CH-EUS and examine its benefits and usefulness in treating pancreatic disorders.

Patients with portal hypertension are thought to be more susceptible to esophagogastric varies. Esophageal variceal haemorrhage can be effectively treated with endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) and endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS). Which of the two is the best therapy for elective and preventive situations appears to be a source of debate in Japan. In order to select the best course of treatment for patients with portal hypertension, it is crucial to consider the hemodynamic of the portal venous system. Clinical professionals can now visualise gastric varies with increased resolution thanks to recent technological advancements. In comparison to haemorrhage from esophageal varies, gastric variceal bleeding is a frequent consequence of portal hypertension and is associated with greater rates of morbidity and mortality. By injecting cyanoacrylate, bleeding stomach varies can be successfully cured. A novel method for obliterating collateral veins linking the portal venous system and systemic circulation, known as balloon-occluded retrograde Tran’s venous obliteration (B-RTO), has recently been studied for the treatment of gastric varies. A promising indication for B-RTO, which has been frequently practised in Japan, is gastric fundal varies coupled with massive gastrorenal shunt (GRS). In this study, we evaluate the hemodynamic of portal hypertensionrelated esophagogastric varies and discuss the utility of endoscopic colour Doppler ultrasonography (ECDUS) [1].

Endoscopy with histology is the primary diagnostic procedure for all mucosal bowel illnesses, however some small bowel diseases still require cross-sectional imaging, which is currently dominated by the radiologic techniques CT enterography/enteroclysis and MRI enterography/enteroclysis. Twenty years ago, the only conditions that could be detected using bowel ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool were large tumours, ileus, and extensive Crohn’s disease. Today, however, Tran’s abdominal sonography has established itself as a relatively reliable method for examining the small bowel, giving gastroenterologists good reason and opportunity to expand their diagnostic toolbox to include this area [2].

By providing greater overall image quality and better visualisation of bowel pathology and accompanying changes in real time (referred to as “live anatomy”), contemporary ultrasound instruments with high-frequency (high resolution) probes and harmonic imaging considerably improve assessment of SB. This diagnostic method is “doctor and patient friendly” due to the widespread accessibility, comparatively low cost of modern devices, non-invasiveness, reproducibility, and absence of radiation. It allows for frequently repeated examinations, especially in chronic inflammatory small bowel diseases, and is safe for both young patients and pregnant women. The results of an ultrasonography examination give a gastroenterologist more information than just an intraluminal view of the bowel structures because they show a correlation between clinical symptoms and the sonographic appearance of the examined bowel segment (maximal tenderness, resistance, compressibility, presence or absence of peristalsis). The accurate interpretation of sonographic data requires sufficient experience in abdominal and bowel sonography, although sonography is a highly operator-dependent technology [3].

Today, Crohn’s disease and all of its complications, including strictures, fistulas, abscesses, tumours of the proximal and distal parts of the small bowel, intussusceptions (due to their transient nature, frequently missed by CT and MRI), and ileus, are included in the spectrum of small bowel diseases reliably detectable by trans abdominal ultrasonography. TUS may help with the accurate diagnosis of several SB illnesses, including infectious enteritis, SB tuberculosis, ischemia, and hemorrhagic disorders [4].

Material and Methods

Retrospective analysis was performed on every patient who sought treatment for ERC at Hannover Medical School’s endoscopic unit between 2008 and 2014. Patients using opioids throughout the intervention as well as those who received an ERC procedure under general anaesthesia were disqualified from the trial. All presentations were considered in the study when there were repeated endoscopic examinations. From the endoscopic database, information on demographics, the length (in minutes (min)) and timing of the intervention, underlying diseases, and the anaesthetic application rate (amount of anaesthetics) were taken. Intermittent bolus injections of propofol, with or without midazolam as premedication, were used to induce deep drowsiness. There was no further administration of analgesics [5]. The endoscopists administered and kept an eye on the sedative Drugs were frequently administered intravenously. For induction, about 0.05 mg of midazolam and 0.50 mg of propofol per kilogramme of body weight were administered. Regular incremental boluses were used as maintenance. Propofol sedation was not routinely administered via an infusion pump. A gastroenterologist who is skilled and trained in advanced life support techniques targeted and managed a deep sedation level (Ramsay sedation scale of 5-6) during ERC while maintaining circulatory and respiratory function.

All of the doctors who do ERC at our facility are skilled endoscopists (more than 300 examinations, more than three years of consistent ERC performance). The local institutional Ethics Committee approved the study (Ethics Committee of Hannover Medical School). An anonymous, retrospective analysis of the data was conducted. As a result, neither a written informed consent is accessible or required. The 1975 Declaration of Helsinki’s ethical principles are followed by the study protocol, as evidenced by an earlier approval (in June 2017) by the institution’s human research committee [6].


Parunoli first saw cysticercosis in humans in 1550, while Aristophanes and Aristotle first reported it in pigs in the third century BC. Infection with the larval stage of the swine tapeworm, Taenia sodium, causes human cysticercosis (i.e., Cysticercus cellulose). Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, China, Southern/Southeast Asia, and Eastern Europe are regions with a high prevalence of tapeworm infection due to their subpar standards of hygiene and sanitation [7].

Ingestion of eggs from tainted food or water, such as vegetables, or internal regurgitation of eggs into the stomach expelled by the adult worm in the intestine are the two main methods of transmission to humans (the definitive host). After eating the egg, stomach acid releases the oncospheres (embryo) inside the egg, which then pass through the gut wall and into the circulation. The brain, followed by the eyes, subcutaneous tissue, liver, and skeletal muscles, is where Cysticercus larva most frequently lodge. Symptomless muscle involvement is typical. A strong host reaction is followed by the majority of the cysts starting to degenerate after around 10 years of viability. The patient is currently complaining of symptoms related to the site of involvement. The cyst’s natural course of resolution is either total resorption or calcification. Rarely do skeletal muscles act alone, but when they do, it usually affects the tongue, masseter, lower lip, soft palate, and sternocleidomastoid muscle [8].

The myopathy type, the nodular or masslike type, the unusual pseudo hypertrophy type, and the myalgia type are the various clinical manifestations that affect the skeletal muscles. Due to the general nature of the manifestation, it might be challenging to make the diagnosis of a single neck swelling purely on the basis of clinical findings. When cysts are calcified (5 years on average) and exhibit a starry sky look due to many cysts in the subcutaneous or intramuscular plane, plain X-rays are less useful for diagnosis in the early stages. A widely used noninvasive, nonionizing diagnostic method for soft tissue imaging is ultrasound. The myopathy type, the nodular or mass-like type, the unusual pseudo hypertrophy type, and the myalgic type are the various clinical manifestations that affect the skeletal muscles. Due to the general nature of the manifestation, it might be challenging to make the diagnosis of a single neck swelling purely on the basis of clinical findings. When cysts are calcified (5 years on average) and exhibit a starry sky look due to many cysts in the subcutaneous or intramuscular plane, plain X-rays are less useful for diagnosis in the early stages. A widely used noninvasive, nonionizing diagnostic method for soft tissue imaging is ultrasound. There are four different sonographic manifestations of muscular cysticercosis calcified cysticercosis, irregular cyst with minimal fluid on one side, eccentric cyst with large irregular collection in neighbouring muscle fibres, and cysticercosis with an inflammatory mass around it [9]. However, it is challenging to confirm the diagnosis by ultrasound in the absence of salient diagnostic ultrasound features where open or needle biopsy is the recommended course of action. Additionally, USG is a helpful tool for researching the temporal progression of treatment response. As noninvasive diagnostic methods, CT and MRI scans can be used to define the place, the quantity, and the connection to the neighbouring structure. As it can identify the tegument layer of the larva, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is regarded as a confirmatory diagnostic tool for soft tissue cysticercosis. However, the invasive diagnostic method can now be easily avoided thanks to advancements in imaging techniques with salient features. Other diagnostic methods, such as the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) as a serological tool or the enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), can help with the diagnosis. Immunodiagnostic techniques, however, have a low sensitivity for the diagnosis of single-lesional cysticercosis, and this sensitivity is much lower if the lesion is involutive, has started to degenerate after ant parasitic therapy, or has evolved naturally. A patient who lives in an area where an infection is already established may be misled by the existence of an antibody. Anthelminthic medications (praziquantel or albendazole, as in our case) and steroids can be used to treat soft tissue cysticercosis without abscess; however, cysts with abscess require surgical excision [10].


Solated muscular cysticercosis is an uncommon clinical condition that, particularly in poor nations, should be taken into consideration as a possible differential diagnosis for neck swelling. An easily accessible, noninvasive diagnostic method that can make a diagnosis with better certainty is ultrasonography. Myocysticercosis in isolation responds favourably to conservative treatment with oral helminthicides.



Conflict of Interests



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