Mini Review - International Journal of Clinical Rheumatology (2023) Volume 18, Issue 1

Clinical, individualized, and corrective denials related to rheumatology and long COVID

Ruth D.E. Fritsch-Stork*

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherland

*Corresponding Author:
Ruth D.E. Fritsch-Stork
Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherland

Received: 05-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. fmijcr-23-86560; Editor assigned: 07- Jan-2023, Pre-QC No. fmijcr-23-86560 (PQ); Reviewed: 21-Jan-2023, QC No. fmijcr-23-86560; Revised: 25-Jan- 2023, Manuscript No. fmijcr-23-86560 (R); Published: 31-Jan-2023, DOI: 10.37532/1758-4272.2023.18(1).011-014



As of this jotting, it's estimated that there have been nearly 600 million cases of coronavirus complaint 2019 (COVID- 19) around the world with over six million deaths. While shocking, these numbers don't completely illustrate the morbidity associated with this complaint. It's also estimated that between 10 and 30 of those who survive COVID- 19 develop patient symptoms after the acute infection has passed. These individualities, who most frequently educated original infections with severe acute respiratory pattern coronavirus 2(SARS- CoV- 2) considered mild to moderate in inflexibility, frequently display a broad array of symptoms. Inclusively, this complaint or pattern is now appertained to as Long COVID (among other designations), and it represents a public/ transnational health extremity. The most constantly reported symptoms associated with Long COVID include habitual fatigue with post exertional features, neurocognitive dysfunction, breathlessness, and physical pain. Long COVID can range in inflexibility from mild to oppressively enervating, with attendant loss of quality of life and productivity. For now, there are numerous unanswered questions girding Long COVID how can it be stylish defined, what's demanded for accurate opinion, what's causing it, and how should it be best managed. How rheumatologists will engage in the Long COVID epidemic is another question; at the minimum, we will be called upon to estimate and manage our own cases with vulnerable- mediated seditious conditions that have developed it. This review focuses on addressing the complaint rudiments, furnishing both declarative and procedural knowledge to prepare rheumatologists for how to address Long COVID understanding its origins, its current case delineations, epidemiology, pathobiology and clinical instantiations. Eventually, it'll give an figure on how to clinically approach cases with possible Long COVID and initiate treatment and/ or guide them on how to stylish manage it


COVID- 19 • Long COVID • Infection


The epidemic of SARS- CoV- 2 infection has taken a dramatic risk on the world’s population in terms of acute morbidity and mortality. At the same time, despite arising viral variants, advances in in- case and out- case care and the preface of largely effective vaccines have been attended by a falling mortality. Given that further than half of the US population is estimated to have been infected with SARSCoV- 2, we've now decreasingly begun to concentrate on thepost-acute sequelae of COVID- 19 (PASC). An estimated 10 – 30 of cases witness enervating symptoms months after resolution of the acute infection. This complaint has been given colorful names including Long COVID, PASC, and others, and the cases tormented are frequently appertained to as “Long Vehicles” given its epidemiologic compass, Long COVID has been appertained to as “our coming public health disaster [1,2].

For now, Long COVID isn't a condition with individual biomarkers, nor does it have a widely accepted case description. Despite these limitations it's clear that Long COVID represents an arising and growing heath problem for millions of Americans( and far more throughout the world), which has led to a significant burden of loss of productivity, dropped quality of life, and fear. The part of rheumatologists will play in this follow- on epidemic is still evolving; at a minimum, they will be engaged by cases with rheumatic conditions, numerous of whom they formerly watch for, who develop it. Rheumatologists may also be well- suited to engage in exploration in complaint immunopathogenesis and rectifiers, as arising data suggest that vulnerable dysregulation and vulnerable activation may contribute to the pathogenesis of Long COVID [3,4]. Although there are presently no specific curatives for Long COVID, we believe there are arising individual and remedial principles that may be considered Stylish Practices, which we will essay to epitomize then.

Material and Method

Is long COVID- 19 unique?

The preface of a new complaint or pattern in complaint nosology deserves critical literal appraisal. Consequently, we must be reminded that there's a long history of cases describing habitualnon-specific symptoms after infection[5]. Ironically, in discrepancy to the current allocation of coffers to Long COVID, medically unexplained symptoms following infections have historically entered little attention. Indeed, these runs have been to some degree the target of derision by some, regarded as an area of borderline wisdom or in some way not real, grounded largely on being inadequately understood and clinically frustrating for both the case and the guru. These instantiations, conceptually allowed of as ‘tails’ of acute infections and appertained to as Post-Acute Infection Runs( PAIS), were lately elegantly reviewed by Choutka and associates[6,7].

In general, while some infections have pathogen-specific PAIS similar as corneal complaint in Ebola, arthritis in Chikungunya, and anosmia and agues in COVID- 19, utmost PAIS aren't complaint specific and tend to partake numerous features of a common end type. The most common instantiations of this on-specific form of PAIS generally include fatigue and lassitude with postexertional features, on-restorative sleep, neurocognitive complaints, signs and symptoms of dysautonomia, and viscerosomatic pain. Inclusively these features reflect a strong imbrication with numerous other medically unexplained diseases, especially with myalgic encephalomyelitis and habitual fatigue pattern (ME/ CFS as will be bandied below. The fact that Long COVID is nearly clinically related to these medically unexplained diseases adds challenges on numerous fronts. First and maybe not unexpectedly, the bare conception of Long COVID is attended by some contestation in both medical and media circles, similar to other post-infection disorders that have been stigmatized as "psychosomatic" or otherwise untrue. Similar contestation simply adds to the clinical and interpersonal challenges facing both clinicians and cases who inclusively so frequently feel compelled to find reasons and results for their suffering [8,9].

How is long COVID defined?

Challenges live regarding how to classify cases with patient symptoms following acute COVID. On one minimum, there's a small group with severe complaint, frequently demanding critical care and passing endorgan damage (e.g., infarction, fibrosis and scarring), who also endure dragged reclamations (Jiang JACC 2022) and cerebral stress typical of post-ICU runs, which are well honored outside of COVID- 19. This group easily deserves expansive individual and rehabilitative care but is, in utmost ways, distinct from the far larger group, members of which suffer after- goods from mild to moderate acute illness. Consequently, there are likely cases with cocktails of both; as of now there are no clear distinctions or individual biomarkers to readily separate these groups [10].

For now, Long COVID and PASC serve as marquee terms used to describe the habitual sequelae of SARS- CoV- 2 infections; in general, Long COVID is a miscellaneous, multisystem, relapsing, and remitting illness that can affect cases anyhow of the inflexibility of their acute SARS- CoV- 2 infection and is unattended by endorgan pathology. multitudinous groups and sanctioned bodies similar as the Center for Disease Control and Prevention( CDC) and the UK National Health Service( NHS) have rendered informal delineations, which lap in terms of stipulating that symptoms must last for a minimum of 4 – 12 weeks following presumed or proven COVID- 19,( indeed if asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic). A recent Delphi conference designed to achieve a global agreement among experts and cases convened by the World Health Organization concluded that Long COVID or PASC may be defined as a new onset or patient symptoms generally 3 months from the onset of probable or verified SARS- CoV- 2 infusion, with symptoms that last for at least 2 months and cannot be explained by an indispensable opinion. They further assert that common symptoms include, but aren't limited to, fatigue, briefness of breath, and cognitive dysfunction, and generally have an impact on everyday functioning; further, they fete that the description will probably change as knowledge increases. We believe that this is both an accurate and practical description of Long COVID.


The underpinning pathophysiology of Long COVID is likely miscellaneous and has been considerably reviewed. The most prominent propositions with remedial counteraccusations are epitomized. It’s clear that vulnerable dysregulation is observed in a subset of cases with Long COVID, characterized by patient, albeit low grade, inflammation dysregulation and continuity of an interferon response and a different autoantibody hand all of which could represent remedial targets. Unfortunately, at present, it's far from clear that these are motorists of the complaint versus simply labels of complaint presence or inflexibility. Growing substantiation of viral presence has immediate counteraccusations for studying the goods of our adding armamentarium of antiviral curatives. Mounting substantiation for a neuropathology base for cognitive dysfunction with substantiation of microglial activation and substantiation of viral- deduced proteins in neural- deduced exosomes is furnishing motivation for trials ofanti-inflammatory or immunomodulators specifics, conceivably in combination with antiviral curatives. Eventually, there's mounting substantiation of autonomic dysfunction in a subset of cases though its origin is unclear. Current propositions supported by variable degrees of substantiation include autoimmunity, oxidative stress, and/ or possible anxiety of the gutbrain axis via symbiosis. A full discussion of this content is beyond the compass of this review but as leading mechanisms include immunodysregulation leading to patient inflammation and/ or autoimmunity, they form a base for implicit vulnerable- grounded rectifiers and are logically of interest to rheumatologists.


Long COVID is a complaint state of profound public health significance, which is yet early in its elaboration. Despite extraordinary progress being made in expounding its pathobiology, multitudinous critical issues remain unsettled. Utmost prominent among these issues are the lack of a livery and extensively accepted set of bracket criteria, individual criteria, and individual biomarkers. Cases are in need of care now and rheumatologists will have to assess how they will approach and engage rheumatic complaint cases who are tormented. Likewise, numerous of the most common complaint instantiations are disciplines well familiar to the rheumatologist, farther emphasizing the important places we will need to play in order to further progress in the arena of Long COVID. Coffers for comprehensive evaluation and treatment are presently and will probably to remain shy to manage the vast maturity of cases, performing in interpreters in all specialties demanding to “step up” and share in arising care pathways. Eventually, growing data support some part of viral vulnerable relations in pathogenesis, therefore yielding prospects of vulnerable interventions which may be well suited to the moxie of the rheumatologist.



Conflict of Interest



  1. Karaarslan F, Güneri FD, Kardeş S et al. Long COVID: rheumatologic/musculoskeletal symptoms in hospitalized COVID-19 survivors at 3 and 6 months. Clin Rheumatol. 41, 289-296 (2022).
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  3. Pelà G, Goldoni M, Solinas E et al. Sex-Related Differences in Long-COVID-19 Syndrome. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 31, 620-630 (2022).
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  5. Winthrop KL, Whitley RJ, Aletaha D et al. SARS-CoV-2 and the rheumatology patient: the last 12 months and a boost in the future. Ann Rheum Dis. 80, 1249-1251 (2021).
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  7. Taribagil P, Creer D, Tahir H et al. ‘Long COVID' syndrome. BMJ Case Rep. 14, 241485 (2021).
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  9. Karaarslan F, Demircioğlu Güneri F, Kardeş S et al. Postdischarge rheumatic and musculoskeletal symptoms following hospitalization for COVID-19: prospective follow-up by phone interviews. Rheumatol Int. 41, 1263-1271 (2021).
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  11. Drosos AA, Pelechas E, Voulgari PV et al.  Long COVID from rheumatology perspective: a simple mimicker or promoter of autoimmunity? Clin Rheumatol. 41, 957-958 (2022).
  12. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  13. Mwangi J, Asadi-Pooya AA, Malekmakan L Akbarialiabad H et al. Long COVID, a comprehensive systematic scoping review. Infection. 49, 1163-1186 (2021).
  14. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  15. Metyas S, Chen C. Rheumatologic Manifestations of Post SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Case Series. Curr Rheumatol Rev. 18, 346-351 (2022).
  16. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  17. Tang KT, Hsu BC, Chen DY et alAutoimmune and Rheumatic Manifestations Associated With COVID-19 in Adults: An Updated Systematic Review. Front Immunol. 12, 645013 (2021).
  18. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  19. Nasonov EL [2019 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): contribution of rheumatology]. Ter Arkh. 93, 71504 (2021).
  20. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

Awards Nomination 20+ Million Readerbase

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

Google Scholar citation report
Citations : 5529

International Journal of Clinical Rheumatology received 5529 citations as per Google Scholar report

International Journal of Clinical Rheumatology peer review process verified at publons

Indexed In