Mini Review - Journal of Agriculture (2023) Volume 6, Issue 1

Climate Change and Indirect Human Exposure to Agriculture-Produced Pathogens and Chemicals

John Smith*

Department of Agriculture and Agri-Food, Ethiopia

*Corresponding Author:
John Smith
Department of Agriculture and Agri-Food, Ethiopia

Received: 30-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. jagri-23- 95378; Editor assigned: 01-Feb-2023, Pre-QC No. jagri-23- 95378 (PQ); Reviewed: 15-Feb-2023, QC No. jagri-23- 95378; Revised: 17-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. jagri-23- 95378 (R); Published: 24-Feb-2023; DOI: 10.37532/jagri.2023.6(1).11-13


Pathogens and chemicals in the environment, as well as their destinations and modes of transportation, are likely to be affected by climate change. Therefore, pathogen and chemical risks of the future may differ significantly from those of the present. In this survey, we evaluate the ramifications of environmental change for changes in human openings to microbes and synthetic compounds in farming frameworks in the Assembled Realm and examine the resulting consequences for wellbeing influences. We looked at climate change literature and consulted with experts for this review; health effects brought on by exposure to agricultural pathogens and chemicals; the introduction of pathogens and chemicals into agricultural systems; and agricultural systems’ pathways for human exposure to pathogens and chemicals. We established the current body of evidence regarding the health effects of agricultural pathogens and chemicals; figured out how climate change might affect the chemical and pathogen inputs in agricultural systems; furthermore, investigated the impacts of environmental change on ecological vehicle and destiny of various foreign substance types. Combining these data, we evaluated the effects of climate change on human indirect exposure to agricultural pathogens and chemicals. Then, we came up with suggestions for future research and policy changes to deal with any negative risk increases.


Agriculture • Climate change • Environmental fate • Health risks • Nutrients • Pathogens • Pesticides


As a result, pathogen and chemical dispersion may be significantly affected by climate change. Climate change is also likely to have an impact on the kinds of pathogens that are present as well as the kinds and amounts of chemicals used in a variety of scenarios [1]. Future dangers of microorganisms and synthetic substances could in this way be altogether different than today, so we should start to survey the ramifications of environmental change for changes in human openings to microbes and synthetic compounds and the resulting wellbeing influences in the close to term and later on. As a result, we examine the current scientific evidence for health effects resulting from environmental exposure to pathogens and agricultural chemicals in this review and discuss how health risks might change; the potential effects that climate change might have on the pathogens and chemicals that enter agricultural systems; as well as the potential effects of climate change on human exposure pathways to agricultural chemicals and pathogens [2]. Last but not least, we suggest ways to reduce any negative increases in health risks. Although our focus in this review is on the agricultural environment in the United Kingdom, some of the findings can be applied to other countries with temperate climates and industries other than agriculture [3]. We only look at how people are exposed in the environment, not how people are exposed in the workplace or when chemicals are applied directly to animals that eat food.

Material and Methods

Human health effects of agricultural chemicals and pathogens

The consumption of crops that have been treated with pesticides or that have taken up contaminants from soils are two ways in which humans may be exposed to agriculturally derived chemicals and pathogens; animals that have amassed toxins through the pecking order; fish presented to impurities in the sea-going climate; and drinking water from surface and groundwater sources [4]. Openness may likewise happen through the inward breath of particulates or volatiles, or from direct contact with water bodies or farming soils. The type of pathogen or chemical will determine the significance of each exposure pathway. Consumption of contaminated food and drinking water will be the primary environmental route from the farm to the general population. Vector, aerial, and direct contact pathways are currently less important to the general population in the United Kingdom [5]. Ascribing wellbeing impacts in everyone to explicit agrarian pollutants is frequently troublesome in light of the fact that numerous synthetic substances and microorganisms are in the climate, with various courses by which they might arrive at people. The situation is further complicated by the fact that some naturally occurring chemicals are harmful. Several studies have linked exposure to agricultural chemicals to a variety of health outcomes, albeit with inconsistent results. Studies have suggested that repeated exposure to low levels of organophosphates may result in biochemical effects in agricultural farmworkers as well as an increased risk of certain cancers, such as leukaemia’s or lymphomas. For instance, exposure to pesticides has been linked to Parkinson’s disease [6]. Chlorphenoxy herbicide exposure has been linked to circulatory and respiratory malformations, congenital anomalies, urogenital and musculoskeletal anomalies, and male changes in North American studies: ratio of female to male offspring. An important public health issue remains outbreaks of waterborne diseases brought on by the contamination of water supplies with animal waste, which is frequently linked to problems with water treatment. Cryptosporidium transmission in people has been connected to regions where compost is being applied to land. There is also solid evidence to suggest that England is more susceptible to sporadic Cryptosporidium cases when there is a lot of rain. Crohn’s disease has been linked to exposure to Mycobacterium avium in agricultural systems, but the mechanism is unclear [7]. Agriculture chemicals may also have an impact on human health indirectly through other, frequently unanticipated routes. Bio toxins that are released into coastal communities as a result of harmful algal blooms brought on by agricultural nitrate inputs are one example.

Climate change’s effects on transportation, destiny, and exposure

According to a number of studies, extreme precipitation events will result in an increase in the transport of contaminants to water bodies [8]. For particulates and sportive contaminants, the most important flow routes are flood immersion, macropore flow, and overland flow. As the soil’s infiltration capacity is exceeded due to climate change, macropore and overland flow events may become more frequent. Additionally, prolonged periods of very high soil moisture deficits during drier summers may result in an increase in soil hydrophobicity and an increase in runoff during more intense summer rainfall [9]. Dry summers may also lead to an increase in soil shrinkage cracks, which may make the macropore system bigger and more connected. For dissolved contaminants like group 1 and 2 elements, nitrates, dissolved organic carbon, reactive phosphorus, and hydrophilic pesticides, matrix flow is the most important route. Climate change may have an impact on this pathway, but only to a lesser extent than the previous pathways. Wetted winters may cause matrix flow to increase, increasing hydraulic conductivities and soil moisture. Soil moisture levels and hydraulic conductivities may be lower in the summer. Increased irrigation may be able to compensate for these lower summer soil moistures and temporarily restore the matrix flow route, particularly if the irrigation is poorly targeted. Flood occasions have previously been exhibited to upgrade the pollution of water bodies by pesticides. After being submerged in floodwater, the dispersion of agricultural chemicals is likely to increase and be aided. In this context, this pathway may not have received as much attention as those previously mentioned. River flows will also be affected by changes in precipitation patterns and levels, affecting both annual totals and seasonal flow patterns [10]. When runoff decreases, flow in rivers that drain impermeable catchments may decrease rapidly, and effluent discharges are likely to account for a larger portion of river flow. Although prolonged drought and groundwater depletion may result in decreased flows that may persist even after new rainfall, rivers whose flow is sustained by natural groundwater inflows are less susceptible to changes in runoff. Pathogen loading may increase as a result of increased threat to effluent dilution from low flows. However, low flows may also prolong the time between discharge and abstraction, giving pathogen and chemical decay more time to develop. There are models that take into account some of these flow pathways, but not necessarily all types of contaminants. Most field-or catchment-based water-quality models for farming frameworks represent vertical and flat network stream of broken down impurities, and some have been planned or changed to represent large scale pore stream. Additionally, there are models for sediment transport and surface runoff. Transport to the air compartment Spray drift during the application process, volatilization and dispersion from treated surfaces, and windblown soil dust can all transport contaminants to the atmosphere.


The nature of the contaminants will have a significant impact on the magnitude of the rises. As a result, many pathogens and particulate and particle-associate contaminants could pose a significant threat to human health. These increments anticipated in the U.K. farming climate can, notwithstanding, are overseen generally through designated examination and strategy changes. Climate and noncelibate factors are likely to alter the agricultural origins of chemicals and pathogens in the future. The contaminant sources will also be impacted by the potential for source variance caused by behavioural responses. Pesticides and biocides are expected to be used more frequently as farming methods become more intensive as a result of climate change. Additionally, intensification may result in increased occupational contact, which raises the risk of zoonoses. Outrageous climate occasions will activate toxins from soils and feces, possibly expanding their bioavailability. Pathogens and chemical contaminants’ transport and fate in agricultural systems will also be affected by climate change. Changes in hydrologic characteristics are likely to increase the likelihood that contaminants will be transported to water supplies, while changes in temperature and moisture content are likely to reduce the persistence of chemicals and pathogens. There are models that can predict how climate change will affect specific pathways and processes; however, models for particular transportation routes may need to be developed or transferred from other fields.


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