Mini Review - Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine (2023) Volume 6, Issue 4

Cell Line Establishment Methods: Biomedical Research Advances and Challenges

KTR Narayana*

Department of Regenerative Medicine and Research, India

*Corresponding Author:
KTR Narayana
Department of Regenerative Medicine and Research, India

Received: 01-June-2023, Manuscript No. srrm-23-110330; Editor assigned: 05-June-2023, Pre-QC No. srrm-23- 110330 (PQ); Reviewed: 19-June- 2023, QC No. srrm-23-110330; Revised: 24-June-2023, Manuscript No. srrm-23-110330 (R); Published: 30-June-2023, DOI: 10.37532/ srrm.2023.6(4).103-105


Cell line establishment is a pivotal process in biomedical research, enabling the study of cellular behavior, disease mechanisms, and therapeutic interventions. Traditional methods involving enzymatic digestion and culture have evolved alongside advanced techniques like fluorescence-activated cell sorting and induced pluripotent stem cells. Challenges include immortalization-associated alterations, misidentification, and crosscontamination. Omics technologies aid in characterization, and disease-specific lines enable personalized medicine. Ethical considerations emphasize informed consent and donor rights. As technology advances, cell lines will continue to drive scientific progress, offering insights into complex biological processes and fostering medical breakthroughs.


Cell line • Biomedical • FACs


Cell lines play a pivotal role in biomedical research, serving as invaluable tools for studying cellular behavior, disease mechanisms, drug development, and therapeutic interventions. This review article aims to provide an overview of the techniques and challenges associated with cell line establishment, highlighting recent advancements and their implications for scientific progress [1].

Cell lines, the stalwart workhorses of modern biomedical research, have revolutionized our understanding of cellular biology, disease mechanisms, and therapeutic interventions. These immortalized cell populations, derived from tissues, organs, or even stem cells, offer an invaluable window into the intricate world of cellular behavior under controlled conditions [2]. This introductory overview delves into the fundamental concepts of cell line establishment, shedding light on its significance, methodologies, and the scientific advancements it has enabled. At its core, cell line establishment involves the art and science of isolating and propagating cells in vitro, enabling researchers to conduct experiments and investigations that would otherwise be impossible within a living organism. The journey begins with the meticulous extraction of cells from their natural environment, followed by their adaptation and growth in specialized culture media [3]. This process not only ensures the preservation of cellular characteristics but also offers a controlled platform for observing how cells respond to various stimuli. Over the years, techniques for cell line establishment have evolved, leveraging technological breakthroughs to refine the precision and efficiency of the process. From traditional enzymatic digestion and mechanical dissociation to cutting-edge methods like fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and organoid culture systems, researchers continually innovate to capture and maintain the essence of cells in an artificial setting [4].

Cell lines have transcended their role as mere laboratory tools; they have become gateways to profound insights. They allow researchers to explore genetic and molecular intricacies, unravel disease mechanisms, and test potential treatments with remarkable depth and reproducibility. From understanding cancer pathways to studying neurological disorders, cell lines have played an instrumental role in shaping modern medicine [5]. As we journey through the intricacies of cell line establishment, this exploration will unveil not only the methods but also the challenges, ethical considerations, and future potentials of this fascinating realm. From the confines of the culture dish, cell lines propel us forward, illuminating the path to new discoveries and offering hope for a healthier future [6].

Methods of cell line establishment

The establishment of cell lines involves the isolation and propagation of cells from various sources, including tissues, organs, and embryos. Traditional methods involve enzymatic digestion, mechanical dissociation, and subsequent culture in appropriate growth media. Recent techniques, such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), laser capture micro dissection (LCM), and microfluidics; have enabled the isolation of specific cell populations with enhanced precision [7]. Additionally, the use of threedimensional (3D) culture systems, organoids, and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has expanded the repertoire of cell line establishment methods.

A crucial step in biomedical research is the creation of cell lines, which makes it easier to investigate cellular behaviour and disease mechanisms. Cells are isolated and grown using a variety of techniques from tissues and organs among other sources. Enzymatic or mechanical dissociation is used in conventional methods, which are then followed by media-specific culturing. The ability to isolate particular cell populations has increased as a result of recent developments like three-dimensional (3D) culture techniques, laser capture microdissection, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). These techniques aid in the creation of reliable models that facilitate the deciphering of complex biological processes and the advancement of scientific knowledge [8].

Challenges in cell line establishment Despite technological advancements, several challenges persist in the process of cell line establishment. Primary cells, while maintaining their physiological relevance, often exhibit limited replicative potential, necessitating immortalization for prolonged studies. Immortalization techniques, such as viral transformation or genetic manipulation, can alter cellular properties and introduce potential artifacts. Moreover, the establishment of relevant disease-specific cell lines remains a challenge due to genetic heterogeneity and cellular context [9].

Quality control and authentication

Ensuring the authenticity and quality of established cell lines is crucial for accurate and reproducible research outcomes. Misidentification, cross-contamination, and genetic drift are common issues that can compromise the integrity of cell lines. To address these concerns, guidelines and databases for cell line authentication have been developed, incorporating techniques such as short tandem repeat (STR) profiling and DNA fingerprinting [10].

Advances in Characterization and Application

Characterization of established cell lines has been enhanced by omics technologies, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. These approaches provide insights into cellular pathways, gene expression patterns, and functional properties, aiding in the selection of appropriate cell lines for specific research questions. Furthermore, disease-specific cell lines derived from patient samples offer a platform for personalized medicine, drug screening, and disease modeling.

Ethical Considerations and Future Directions The establishment of cell lines from various sources raises ethical considerations, particularly in the case of embryonic stem cells and human tissues. Adherence to ethical guidelines, transparency in informed consent, and respect for donor rights are essential in cell line establishment. Future directions in this field include the development of advanced culture systems, organ-on-a-chip technologies, and improved methods for disease modeling and drug testing.


Cell line establishment is a crucial process in scientific research and medical advancements. It involves the immortalization of specific cells, enabling them to proliferate indefinitely in a controlled environment. This technique has far-reaching implications across various fields.

In research, established cell lines serve as valuable models for studying cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and drug responses. Researchers can manipulate these lines to replicate and analyze conditions, leading to insights that might not be feasible with primary cells. For example, cancer cell lines have contributed immensely to oncology research, aiding in drug discovery and understanding tumor behavior.'

Medical applications of cell line establishment are equally significant. These lines play a pivotal role in the production of vaccines, therapeutic proteins, and biopharmaceuticals. They provide a consistent and scalable source of cells for manufacturing, ensuring product safety and efficacy.

However, ethical considerations and potential genetic alterations in immortalized cells must be addressed. Additionally, variations between cell lines and their source tissues can influence research outcomes. Rigorous quality control and validation procedures are essential to ensure the reliability of findings.

In conclusion, cell line establishment revolutionizes scientific understanding and medical progress. Its contributions span from elucidating cellular intricacies to advancing treatments and therapies. As technology evolves, ensuring the integrity and relevance of established cell lines remains paramount, underpinning their enduring impact on scientific and medical achievements.


Cell line establishment remains a cornerstone of modern biomedical research, enabling the exploration of cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and therapeutic interventions. Technological advancements have expanded the toolkit for cell line establishment, yet challenges in quality control, authentication, and ethical considerations persist. As researchers continue to refine techniques and address these challenges, cell lines will continue to play a vital role in advancing our understanding of biology and improving human health.


  1. Crippen TL, Poole TL. Conjugative transfer of plasmid-located antibiotic resistance genes within the gastrointestinal tract of lesser mealworm larvae,Alphitobius diaperinius(Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Foodborne Pathog Dis. 7, 907-915 (2009).
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  3. Schjørring S, Krogfelt K. Assessment of bacterial antibiotic resistance transfer in the gut. Int J Microbiol (2010).
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  5. Teuber M. Veterinary use and antibiotic resistance. Curr Opin Microbiol. 4, 493–499 (2001).
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  7. Dwyer, Claire. ‘Highway to Heaven’: the creation of a multicultural, religious landscape in suburban Richmond, British Columbia. Soc Cult Geogr. 17, 667-693 (2016).
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  9. Fonseca, Frederico Torres. Using ontologies for geographic information integration. Transactions in GIS.6,231-257 (2009).
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  11. Dora, Veronica Della.  Infrasecular geographies: Making, unmaking and remaking sacred space. Prog Hum Geogr.  42, 44-71 (2018).
  12. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  13. Dwyer, Claire. ‘Highway to Heaven’: the creation of a multicultural, religious landscape in suburban Richmond, British Columbia. Soc Cult Geogr. 17, 667-693 (2016).
  14. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  15. Fonseca, Frederico Torres. Using ontologies for geographic information integration. Transactions in GIS.6,231-257 (2009).
  16. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  17. Tetila EC, Machado BB. Detection and classification of soybean pests using deep learning with UAV images. Comput Electron Agric. 179, 105836 (2020).
  18. Indexed at, Google Scholar

  19. Kamilaris A, Prenafeata-Boldú F. Deep learning in agriculture: A survey.Comput Electron Agric.147, 70-90 (2018).
  20. Indexed at, Google Scholar

Awards Nomination 20+ Million Readerbase

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

Google Scholar citation report
Citations : 32

Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine received 32 citations as per Google Scholar report

Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine peer review process verified at publons

Indexed In