Targeting ischemic penumbra Part I: from pathophysiology to therapeutic strategyAuthor(s): Shimin Liu, Steven R. Levine and H. Richard Winn
Penumbra is the viable tissue around the irreversibly damaged ischemic core. The purpose of acute stroke treatment is to salvage penumbral tissue and to improve brain function. However, the majority of acute stroke patients who have treatable penumbra are left untreated. Therefore, developing an effective non-recanalizational therapeutics, such as neuroprotective agents, has significant clinical applications. Part I of this serial review on “targeting penumbra” puts special emphases on penumbral pathophysiology and the develop-ment of therapeutic strategies. Bioenergetic intervention by massive metabolic suppression and direct energy delivery would be a promising future direction. An effective drug delivery system for this purpose should be able to penetrate BBB and achieve high local tissue drug levels while non-ischemic region being largely unaffected. Selective drug delivery to ischemic stroke penumbra is feasible and deserves intensive research.