Evaluation of serum magnesium levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications

Author(s): Sudharshan Khan & A Meenakshi Shetty

Aim: To determine the prevalence of hypomagnesemia in Type 2 diabetes mellitus and to compare magnesium levels in diabetic microangiopathy and macroangiopathy.

Methods: It was a cross sectional descriptive type of study done amongst 250 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who presented to a tertiary care center. Serum magnesium was studied for association with diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications.

Results: In this study, 250 type 2 diabetes mellitus participants were included out of which 108 had no complications and 142 had microangiopathy or macroangiopathy. Prevalence of hypomagnesemia was 23.2% amongst the study group. 50.4% of patients with microangiopathy had hypomagnesemia with a significant p value<0. 001. No significant association found between hypomagnesemia and macroangiopathy.

Conclusion: Magnesium levels were significantly low in the study groups with diabetic microangiopathy and were also associated with poor glycemic control. This highlights that magnesium plays an important role in development of diabetic complications and insulin resistance. These data indicate that attention should be given to the risk groups like the individuals with metabolic syndrome and Type 2 DM in which serum magnesium levels should be monitored periodically.