Abstract

Brief overview of diabetes mellitus

Author(s): Gudisa Bereda*

Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia in which glucose is underutilized due to defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. As of 2014, an estimated 387 million people had diabetes mellitus worldwide. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia in which glucose is underutilized due to defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. As of 2014, an estimated 387 million people had diabetes mellitus worldwide.

Objective: To encapsulate the definitions, classifications, prevalence, risk factors, diagnostics procedure, goal of management, lifestyle modifications, treatment, and complications of diabetic mellitus.

Review: The authors used 89 different published articles for the accomplishment of this review article. Google search engine was used for accessing published articles from databases like Google Scholar, Research Gate, PubMed, NCBI, NDSS, PMID, PMCID, Cochrane Database and Clindamed international library.

Findings: A role for excess glucagon cannot be underestimated; indeed, type 2 diabetes is an islet paracrinopathy in which the reciprocal relationship between the glucagon-secreting alpha cell and the insulin-secreting beta cell is lost, leading to hyperglucagonemia and hence the consequent hyperglycemia. Protease inhibitors may bind to as yet uncharacterized target proteins that regulate lipid metabolism, leading to elevated circulating fatty acids that could interfere with insulin signaling or enter the fatty acid cycle and compete with glucose cycle intermediates. Biguanides which reduce gluconeogenesis in the liver include metformin. The burden of diabetes is even higher in developing countries and in Ethiopia; systematic review result showed that prevalence of diabetes mellitus is between 2% and 6.5%.

Conclusion: Diabetes is chronic disease occurred due to increased blood glucose level because of the body cannot produce at all or secrets in sufficient insulin hormone or not use it effectively. The common risk factors for occurrence of complications were gender, long duration with diabetes, poor and inadequate glycemic control, negative attitude towards diabetes, poor treatment adherence, and poor knowledge about the disease and its management.


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