Analytical Methods and Clinical Applications in Renal Diseases for Human Urine Proteomics

Author(s): Federica Rossi*

Imaging performed for unrelated therapeutic purposes is typically accidental in detecting renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Excellent outcomes for the surgical treatment of confined malignancies have been documented. With the widespread use of so-called “targeted medicines,” advanced RCC therapy has advanced significantly in recent years. One of the most difficult tasks in oncologic research is finding molecular markers in bodily fluids (such as sera and urine) that can be used for screening, diagnosis, follow-up, and monitoring drug-based therapy in RCC patients. Despite some encouraging findings concerning possible biomarkers in sera, there is little information now available about urine indicators for RCC. The most promising biomarkers found in the bodily fluids of RCC patients are reported in the review that follows. Since urine is a useful source of proteins and peptides with a relatively stable composition and is simple to collect in large and repeated volumes using a noninvasive approach, it has drawn the interest of clinical proteomics experts in the past ten years. In this study, we go into great detail about the technical elements of urine proteomics, such as sample preparation, proteomic technologies, and their benefits and drawbacks. Acute kidney injury, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, lupus nephritis, membranous nephropathy, and immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy are only a few of the renal disorders for which new investigations using the urine proteome for biomarker development are reported. Additionally, a few of the readily accessible databases for urine proteomics are briefly discussed.