A cross-sectional investigation of cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with chronic periodontitis

Author(s): Arthi Balasubramaniam

Background: Cognitive impairment is the condition where there is expected cognitive
decline of normal aging. It is characterized by difficulties with memory, language, thinking and
judgment. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for cognitive impairment and
periodontitis. The chronic effects of both periodontitis and diabetes may have an uncontrollable
additive effect on the body and a greater risk for developing neurodegeneration associated
with dementia. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cognitive impairment in patients with
type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis.

Methods: A total of 70 subjects in the age group of 40 to 60 years which included diabetic
individuals with and without chronic periodontitis. Community screening instrument for
dementia (CSI-D) was used for assessing the cognitive impairment of the patients. Data
obtained were compiled systematically in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Pearson Chi-square
test and Pearson correlation test was performed for the statistical analysis. P value<0.05 was
considered to be statistically significant.

Results: The results showed that there are a significant number of diabetic individuals with
chronic periodontitis having possible chances of developing cognitive impairment. It has also
been shown that possible chances of cognitive impairment were higher in males among the
age group of 56 to 60 years.

Conclusion: The clinical implication of these findings helps in modifying the lifestyle of elderly
diabetic population who are at a risk for the development of dementia.