Pancreatic Islet Allo-trans Plantations:

The pancreas is an organ about the dimensions of a hand located within the abdomen within the vicinity of the stomach, intestines, and other organs. It lies behind the stomach and ahead of the spine. The pancreas produce juices that help digest food and hormones like insulin and glucagon that maintain optimal blood glucose levels and help the body to use and store energy from food.The islets are purified, processed, and transferred into another person. Once implanted, the beta cells in these islets begin to form and release insulin. Researchers hope that islet transplantation will help people with type 1 diabetes live without daily injections of insulin.Researchers use specialized enzymes to get rid of islets from the pancreas of a deceased donor. Because the islets are fragile, transplantation occurs soon after they're removed. Typically a patient receives a minimum of 10,000 islet "equivalents" per kilogram of weight, extracted from two donor pancreases. Patients often require two transplants to realize insulin independence. Some transplants have used fewer islet equivalents taken from one donated pancreas. Transplants are often performed by a radiologist, who uses x rays and ultrasound to guide placement of a catheter-a small plastic tube-through the upper abdomen and into the hepatic portal vein of the liver. The islets are then infused slowly through the catheter into the liver. The patient receives an area anesthetic and a sedative. In some cases, a surgeon may perform the transplant through alittle incision, using general anesthesia. Islets extracted from a donor pancreas are infused into the liver. Once implanted, the beta cells within the islets begin to form and release insulin.    

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