Telecommunication is the , science and the use of electromagnetic means to transmit information. Modern telecommunications centers are dealing with the challenges of transmitting vast quantities of information over long distances without disturbing noise and interruption losses. Digital communication is used to gain high efficiency, so as the expense of automated switching systems is considerably smaller than the expense of analog systems. Data is transmitted through an electrical signal, called the carrier or carrier wave, in a telecommunications circuit. Some type of modulation is necessary in order for a carrier to transmit information. The modulation mode can be categorized broadly either as analog or as digital. Telecommunications networks are typically operated by providers of telecommunications infrastructure often recognized as providers of communications services. Historically, these providers offered telephone and related services and now offer a variety of Internet and WAN services, as well as a network of metropolitan areas and global services.  

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