A biomaterial is a substance that has been engineered to interact with biological systems for a medical use - either a therapeutic (augment, repair or replace a tissue function in the body) or a diagnostic. In the field of science, biomaterials is about fifty years old. The study of biomaterials is termed biomaterials science or biomaterials engineering. Metals, ceramics, plastic, glass, and even living cells and tissue all are often utilized in creating a biomaterial. they will be reengineered into molded or machined parts, coatings, fibers, films, foams, and fabrics to be used in biomedical products and devices. These may involve heart valves, hip joint replacements, dental implants, or contact lenses. They often are biodegradable, and a few are bio-absorbable, meaning they're eliminated gradually from the body after fulfilling a function. The ability of an engineered biomaterial to induce a physiological response that's supportive of the biomaterial's function and performance is understood as bioactivity. Most commonly, in bioactive glasses and bioactive ceramics the term bioactivity refers to the ability of implanted materials to bond well with surrounding tissue in either osseoconductive or osseoproductive roles. Bone implant materials are usually designed to enhance bone growth while dissolving into surrounding body fluid. Thus for several biomaterials good biocompatibility along with good strength and dissolution rates are desirable. Commonly, bioactivity of biomaterials is gauged by the surface biomineralisation in which a native layer of hydroxyapatite is created at the surface.

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