Mini Review - Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Clinical Practice (2023) Volume 6, Issue 2
Pharmaceutical applications of pectin
Department of Drug Metabolism, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Department of Drug Metabolism, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Received: 01-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. jprcp-23-95920; Editor assigned: 03-Apr-2023, PreQC No. jprcp-23- 95920(PQ); Reviewed: 17-Apr-2023, QC No. jprcp-23-95920; Revised: 24-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. jprcp-23-95920 (R); Published: 28-Apr-2023 DOI: 10.37532/ jprcp.2023.6(2).34-36
Due to their natural availability, biocompatibility, biodegradability, nontoxicity, flexibility, as well as improved structural and useful characteristics, pectin and pectin-based nanocomposites have become an curiously region of numerous analysts. Pectin may be a polysaccharide that comes from plants and is utilized in a variety of items. The significance of pectin polysaccharide and its altered nanocomposites in a number of applications has been appeared in various reviews. On their uses in pharmaceutical and medication conveyance, there are, in any case, few audit distributions. The majority of papers on pectin polysaccharide do not structure their clarifications of medicate distribution and restorative application. The biological application of pectin nanocomposites is also clarified in this survey, along with a later publication. They have also received a lot of interest as drug carriers in targeted drug delivery systems due to their biocompatibility and properties that allow for controlled release. They have been used to give drugs to people to treat cancer, inflammation, pain, Alzheimer’s, bacteria, relax muscles, and treat cancer. According to the findings of this review, pectin and its derivatives are viable options for a wide range of medical applications due to their improved drug delivery efficiency. To develop commercial formulations that can act as both therapeutic agents and drug carriers, additional research on toxicity has been suggested.
Pectin • Polysaccharide • Nanocomposites • Pharmaceuticals
Because of their abundance and characteristic accessibility, biopolymers are currently getting a parcel of interest within the nourishment and pharmaceutical businesses. Due to its inherent qualities like as biocompatibility, biodegradability, nontoxicity, flexibility, and progressed basic and functional aspects, bio-nanocomposites have ended up the subject of considerable research. Pectin, chitosan, alginate, cellulose, agarose, guar gum, agar, carrageenan, and gelatin are cases of biopolymers and as of now hot area research. Biopolymers are especially captivating since they are renewable, have a cheap production taken a toll, and have a wide extend of pharmaceutical applications. There are three main classes of biopolymers owing to their universal event and plenitude: (i) polynucleotides, (ii) polypeptides/poly amino acids, and (iii) polysaccharides.
Gelatin is a polysaccharide found in plants’ cell walls that assists them with developing and broaden their cells. Gelatin is gotten from plants and can be used as a bioplastic material for a scope of utilizations. It is a carbohydrate polymer that is mostly derived from nature and is a structural component of the cell walls of plants. Pectin is a polysaccharide with biological activity that is biocompatible and can be extracted in a variety of ways. It is a poly 1–4-galacturonic acid with methylated carboxylic acid residues of varying degrees. The degree of esterification of galacturonic acid residues is the most important parameter that affects pectin’s solubility and ability to form gels [1-3]. Pectin can be used for a variety of purposes due to its non-toxicity, low cost, biodegradability, water soluble nature, and other properties.
Biopolymer-based nanocomposites, such as pectin nanocomposites, have received a lot of attention in recent years due to their excellent thermal, mechanical, and biodegradable properties . Due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and non-toxicity, pectin is utilized in numerous biological, food, and pharmaceutical applications. Also, gelatin based bio nanocomposites have different applications in tissue designing, quality exchange, wound mending, and dressings, drug conveyance, and disease focusing on. In the beauty care products area, it is used as an emulsifier. It is frequently used in conjunction with kaolin in drug formulations for oral administration to the colon .Additionally, edible films and plasticizers made from pectin are utilize Depending on the source and method of extraction, pectin can have a variety of structures. Various investigations and survey reports have shown that gelatin and its changed nanocomposites (NCs) are utilized for different applications. However, their pharmaceutical and drug delivery applications have only been the subject of a few reports. As a result, the compilation of reports on the pharmaceutical uses of pectin and its modified NCs is the goal of this review.
The most promising pharmaceutical and medical applications, in addition to their use in drug delivery systems (DDS), are pectin and structurally modified pectin [5-7]. Expanding interest in gelatin is because of its simple accessibility in nature and expanding accessibility in the drug business. Biotechnologists and microbiologists have developed a variety of biopolymers for specific applications in the biomedical and pharmaceutical industries due to their exceptional physical, chemical, and biological capabilities. Pectin biopolymer is an important product for pharmaceutical and biological applications because of these functions. The following section discusses pectin and its modified NCs’ pharmacological properties, which include anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, immune system strengthening, and blood cholesterol regulating properties .
Even though a wide range of scientific investigations have been intensified to combat this disease, metastases and tumor cell medication tolerance are contributing to an increase in the incidence of cancer. Studies have shown that pectin can help prevent metastasis. This is especially true for pectin that has been broken down into smaller, more absorbable pieces with a lower molecular weight [9-10]. Compared to unaltered pectin, pectin that has been altered by enzymes, heat, radiation, chemicals, and heat has stronger anticancer properties. Functionally engineered pectin that is high in galactose, contains neutral sugar sequences with a low degree of branching, and inhibits colon carcinoma cell migration and proliferation.
By disrupting micelle formation, slowing bile acid diffusion, blocking the absorption of cholesterol-carrying micelles, and reducing bile acid diffusion rates, highly viscous pectin may have a greater impact on inhibiting blood cholesterol levels. The cholesterol-bringing down properties of citrus strips are logical because of gelatin from the strips. Consuming at least 6 g of pectin per day can lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in people with normal or elevated lipid levels. Plasma triglyceride levels remained unchanged. It has been discovered that guinea pigs’ hepatic cholesterol homeostasis is altered by pectin from prickly pears. Consumption of pectin from prickly pear has been shown to alter hepatic cholesterol homeostasis in guinea pigs. It has been demonstrated that the specific molecular composition of the pectin varieties used to produce a viscous gastro-intestinal content has a significant impact on cholesterol reduction and may also affect blood glucose levels.
Numerous in vitro and/or in vivo studies have shown that pectin polysaccharide and pectin-based modified NCs have a variety of pharmaceutical properties, including anticancer, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, immune system boosting, blood cholesterol regulation, and other properties. As well as being used as dynamic remedial specialists, gelatin based nanocomposites have been utilized in drug conveyance frameworks, including the conveyance of anticancer, mitigating, antipain, hostile to alzheimer, antibacterial, muscle relaxant, and different medications. If sufficient toxicity studies are carried out to ensure that pectin and its modified NCs are safe for human cells, the results of this review suggest that pectin and its modified NCs could soon be utilized as therapeutic agents and drug carriers.
Declaration of interest’s statement
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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