Research Article - Clinical Investigation (2022) Volume 12, Issue 11


57 (53.3%) nurses are diplomate, 10 (9.3%) are graduates, and 40 (37.4) are undergraduates (Figure 2).


Figure 2: Qualification of Nurses.

The duration of nurses is different for different ages with a mean 8.170, median 5.00, mode 1.0, and standard deviation of 7.3978 (Table 2).

Table 2. Duration of service in years

Duration in years Frequency Percent
0.1 1 0.9
0.3 2 1.9
1 14 13.1
2 8 7.5
2.5 1 0.9
3 13 12.1
4 5 4.7
5 10 9.3
6 8 7.5
7 5 4.7
8 2 1.9
9 5 4.7
10 5 4.7
12 2 1.9
13 2 1.9
15 2 1.9
16 1 0.9
17 1 0.9
18 3 2.8
19 3 2.8
20 5 4.7
21 2 1.9
22 2 1.9
23 3 2.8
26 1 0.9
33 1 0.9
Total 107 100

There are 74 (69.2%) charge nurses, 19 (17.8%) are staff nurses, 4 (3.7%) are supervisors, 4 (3.7%) are head nurses, 5 (4.7%) are male nurses and 1 (0.9%) are registered, nursing officer (Figure 3) [9].


Figure 3: Designation of nurses

91 (85 correctly defined the term blood-borne disease, and 5 (4.7%) cannot be defined %) nurses (Figure 4). Correctly and 11 9 (10.3%) did it know about this definition.


Figure 4: Definition of term blood born disease.

80 (74.8%) nurses knew about the name and causative agents of blood-borne diseases, 13 (12.1%) wrongly answered, 1 (.9%) did not know about it, 13 (12.1%) are missing (Figure 5).


Figure 5: Name and the causative agent of a blood-borne disease

22 (20.6%) nurses correctly answered about the source of infection of blood-borne disease, 58 (54.2%) wrongly answered, and 27 (25.2%) did not know about the source of infection of the blood borne diseases (Figure 6).


Figure 6: Source of infection of blood-borne diseases.

30 (28.0%) Nurses Correctly answered about the risk factors of blood-borne disease, 24 (22.4%) wrongly answered and 53 (49.5%) don’t know the risk factors of these diseases (Table 3).

Table 3: Risk factors of blood-borne diseases.

  Frequency Percent
Correct 30 28
Wrong 24 22.4
Don’t know 53 49.5
Total 107 100

The majority of nurses answered that hepatitis C is the most common blood-borne disease in Pakistan that is 38 (35.5%), 13 (12.1%) answered hepatitis B, 2 (1.9%) answered AIDS, 23 (21.5%) answered both hepatitis B and C, 1 (.9%) answered about hepatitis B, C and AIDS and 30(28.0%) don’t know about these diseases (Figure 7).


Figure 7: Most common blood-borne disease in Pakistan

66 (61.7%) answered that these diseases can be transmitted by blood. 22 (20.6%) answered that these diseases cannot be transmitted besides blood. 19 (17.8%) don’t know about the transmission of these diseases besides blood (Figure 8).


Figure 8: Another way of transmission of these diseases besides blood

66 (61.7%) answered that healthcare workers are more susceptible to blood-borne diseases, 25 (23.4%) don’t know about the more susceptible person, 15 (14.0%) answered others are more susceptible than healthcare workers (Figure 9).


Figure 9: More susceptible persons

Only 2 (1.9%) answered that their work has no risk of exposure to contracting blood-borne infection, 30 (28.0%) answered that has a low risk of exposure, 62 (57.9%) answered that has a high risk of exposure, 13 (12.1%) don’t know about its exposure (Figure 10).


Figure 10: Work exposure

21 (19.6%) answered that Hepatitis B is preventable. 2 (1.9%) answered that Hepatitis C is preventable, 3 (2.8%) answered about AIDS, 8 (7.5%) answered that Hepatitis B and C both are preventable, 34 (31.8%) answered that all blood borne diseases are preventable, 39 (36.4%) don’t about it (Figure 11).


Figure 11: Response after getting needlestick injury

53(49.5%) answered that blood-borne diseases have effective treatment, 34 (31.8%) answered that they are not treatable, 20 (18.7%) don’t about it (Figure 12) (Table 4).


Figure 12: Effective treatment.

Table 4. Correct Answers

Category Frequency Percent
Don’t know 13 12.1
Satisfactory 20 18.7
Good 63 58.9
Excellent 11 10.3
Total 107 100


Bloodborne pathogens are microorganisms such as viruses or bacteria that are carried in the blood and can cause disease in people. There are many different blood-borne pathogens, including malaria, syphilis, and brucellosis, and most notably Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV), and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) [20]. It is important to know the ways exposure and transmission are most likely to occur in a particular situation, like nurses providing first aid to a patient in the casualty ward, handling blood samples in the laboratory, cleaning up blood from a hallway, etc. Healthcare workers, emergency response and public safety personnel, and other workers can be exposed to blood through needle sticks and other sharps injuries, mucous membranes, and skin exposures. But nurses are more important in this situation because nurses are the main force that comes in contact with patients on a routine basis. Some of those patients might have blood-borne diseases like HIV, Hepatitis B & C, etc which will be easily transferred to these nurses. These infections are major threats to healthcare workers specially nurses. Knowledge about Hepatitis B, C, and AIDS is crucial for healthcare workers because of the increasing incidence of these infections [21].

In this Study, About 90% of nurses know about the term blood-borne disease and only 10% don’t know about this term. Only 28% of nurses know about the risk factors of getting these infections which is very disastrous. Our findings are similar to those found in national and international reports [22].

Many of them said Hepatitis C is more common in Pakistan. And about the transmission other than blood. More than 60 percent know that healthcare workers are more susceptible to getting these deadly infections a finding that is comparable with some Egyptian studies [23]. There is no vaccine available for the prevention of hepatitis C and AIDS. Still, 22.4% claimed the availability of a vaccine that can protect against hepatitis C and AIDS.

Vaccination against HBV is important for healthcare providers. In the current study, more than 30% of nurses do not know about HBV vaccinations in contrast to a lower percentage (20%) of nurses in a similar study from Palestine [24]. This reflects poor national hospital policies to implement compulsory vaccination for employed nurses to prevent them from being infected by Bloodborne pathogens. As we are aware of the dangers of contaminated needles and the deadly diseases they can transmit. In our study, less than 40% of nurses knew about needle safety even though needle pricks are one of the significant modes of transmitting hepatitis B and C in the world. In contrast to studies conducted by Labrangue LJ, Rheajane AR, and Tizon MM. where this ratio is much higher 85% [25]. Nurses often sustain needle stick and sharp object injuries during clinical practice as is evident from other studies. Efforts are needed to correct unacceptable nurses ‘performance, especially when the mismatch between knowledge and practice is witnessed. In the current study, there was no significant correlation between knowledge and practice. However, a statistically significant positive correlation was found between knowledge and practice in the other studies' findings that reflect the better performance of nurses based on their knowledge. This contradictory finding might be explained by the lack of adherence to IC practices because of the absence of supervision and corrective actions [26-39].


Both the knowledge and the practices of nurses working in the selected Ayub teaching Hospital in terms of Blood borne disease measures were fair. In our study, about 70% of nurses have reasonable knowledge about blood-borne infections. But 30% have inadequate knowledge about these infections. Some nurses in the hospital refused to participate in the study because of their fear of situation assessment; an attitude that needs to assure patient and healthcare workers' safety. They do not know about the mode of transmission of these viruses. These sources, risk factors, vaccination, and treatment. There is a great risk of getting bloodborne infections from these nurses the infected patients.


Healthcare facilities should focus on increasing nurses’ awareness of strict adherence to Infection Control standards and implement training and preventive programs to minimize the risk of needlestick injuries. All nurses should be vaccinated against HBV. It is recommended to implement educational, highly structured informative inservice programs aiming at Nurses' education about blood-borne infections. This should be followed by post-training evaluations to assess the outcome and level of practice of Healthcare Workers based on their knowledge before and after the training intervention. All Healthcare workers should be encouraged to seek vaccination against HBV to reduce the risk of its sequel recommendations.


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