Submerged fermentation for truffles: a potential replacement and production

Author(s): Tang Lie

Because of its distinctive and recognisable perfume, ruffle (Tuber spp.), sometimes known as “underground gold,” is a common ingredient in many different cuisines. Presently, nature and somewhat artificial farming are the main sources of truffle fruiting bodies. The latter takes a long time to grow and often takes 4 to 12 years before the fruiting body can be harvested, whereas the former source is uncommon. In Tang’s laboratory, the submerged fermentation method for truffles was initially created as an alternative to their fruiting bodies. To the best of our knowledge, Tang’s team is responsible for the majority of reports on truffle submerged fermentation. The present condition of the submerged fermentation method for truffles is examined in this review. First, a summary of the approach taken to optimise the submerged fermentation process for truffles is given; under these final circumstances, the greatest documented truffle biomasses as well as the largest production of extracellular and intracellular polysaccharides were produced. Second, a comparison of the metabolites produced by fruiting bodies and truffle fermentation is made, with the former coming out on top. Third, fermentation process optimisation may be able to control the metabolites (such as volatile organic compounds, equivalent umami concentration, and sterol) produced during the fermentation of truffles. These results suggested that a promising alternative to producing truffle fruiting bodies in a bioreactor is submerged fermentation of truffles for the commercial generation of biomass and metabolites.