Lipids: The Role of Lipid Metabolism and LipidomicAuthor(s): Dr. Abdullah Mo. Khan
Fats and lipids are common ingredients in food and may have important functions. Their types may be more important than their numbers when it comes to health and disease. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of the data regarding the impact that functional lipids have on human health. Numerous diseases can be prevented and treated with the help of functional lipids, according to recent research. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids, medium chain triglycerides, phytosterols, and other functional lipids have numerous beneficial effects on human health, including the treatment and management of depression, blood pressure, cardiovascular health, and obesity. The production of eicosanoids, which are the metabolites of these series of fatty acids, is controlled by the ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Supplemental and dietary forms of functional lipids have been shown to have positive effects on healthy individuals as well as encouraging improvements in patients. A growing body of research suggests that lipid metabolism plays a significant role in aging. Nematodes, fruit flies, mice, and rats all live longer thanks to numerous lipid-related dietary, pharmacological, genetic, and surgical interventions. For instance, both worms and flies can live longer if their genes for ceramide and sphingolipid synthesis are affected. Caenorhabditis elegans lives longer when fatty acid amide hydrolase or lysosomal lipase is overexpressed, while Drosophila melanogaster and C. elegans live longer when diacylglycerol lipase is overexpressed. Adipose tissue removal surgically increases rats' lifespan, and both flies and mice's survival is improved by an increase in apolipoprotein D expression. The genetic deletion of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, treatment with the steroid 17-estradiol, or a ketogenic diet can also extend the lifespan of mice. In addition, a progeria mouse model in which the phospholipase A2 receptor is deleted has better health span parameters. Human aging has been linked to a number of lipid-related variants, according to genome-wide association studies. Apolipoprotein E's epsilon 2 and epsilon 4 alleles, for instance, are linked to extreme longevity and neurodegenerative diseases with late onset. Triglyceride levels tend to rise in humans as they get older, while lysophosphatidylcholine levels tend to drop. It has also been demonstrated that certain sphingolipid and phospholipid blood profiles alter with age and are linked to exceptional human longevity. Blood lipids probably represent a rich source of human aging biomarkers and suggest that lipid-related interventions may extend human health spans.