Diabetes mellitus: Risk Factors Contributing to Type 2 Diabetes

Author(s): Dr. Aman Katiyar

In addition to other risk factors like obesity and a sedentary lifestyle, type 2diabetes is a serious and prevalent chronic disease caused by a complex interaction between genes and environment. Nearly all populations in both developed and developing nations are affected by type 2diabetes and its complications, which contribute to high rates of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. Type 2diabetes is on the rise at an exponential rate, and a high prevalence rate has been observed in populations undergoing "westernization" or "modernization" as well as in developing nations. It is necessary to develop new effective therapy strategies and appropriate preventative measures for the control of type 2diabetes due to the numerous risk factors of the disease, the delay in diagnosis until micro- and macro-vascular complications arise, life-threatening complications, the failure of the current therapies, and the financial costs associated with the treatment of this disease. We present a synopsis of what we know so far about the epidemiology of type 2 diabetes, including the roles that genes, lifestyle, and other factors play in the rapid rise in the disease's prevalence. The primary objectives are to advance new type 2 diabetes therapy strategies and cost-effective intervention trials. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in various regions is examined. Adult diabetes prevalence is highest in the Middle East and North Africa region (10.9%), while the Western Pacific region has the highest number of adults diagnosed with diabetes and the countries with the highest diabetes prevalence (37.5%). Diagnostic criteria, etiology, and genetics are compared between various classes of diabetes mellitus, including gestational diabetes, type 1, and others. Numerous prominent biomedical researchers have paid a lot of attention to the diabetes molecular genetics issue in recent years. A review of a large number of mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that are involved in the various stages and pathways of glucose metabolism, as well as the development, control, and function of pancreatic cells at various levels, is provided.