The class of small, endogenous RNAs of 21–25 nucleotides in length is known as MicroRNAs. These are also known as miRNAs. For the degradation or translation repression these miRNAs targets specific mRNAs and plays a key regulatory role in animals and plants. The synthesis pathways and the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs have recently been revealed by the scientific advancements in plants and animals. In disease etiology and treatment miRNA-based regulation has been implicated. The prevailing knowledge about miRNAs synthesis, their mechanisms for regulation of the genome, and their extensive functions have been summarized in plants and animals. The recent position and status of miRNA therapeutics preclinical and clinical trials are also studied.


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