Cancer Surgery Open Access Journals & Research

Cancer surgery removes the tumor and nearby tissue during an operation. A doctor who treats cancer with surgery is called a surgical oncologist. Surgery is the oldest type of cancer treatment. And it is still effective for many types of cancer today. There are many reasons to have surgery: ·         To diagnose cancer ·         To remove all or some of a cancer ·         To find out where the cancer is located ·         To find out if the cancer has spread or is affecting the functions of other organs in the body ·         To restore the body's appearance or function ·         To relieve side effects You may have surgery in a doctor's office, clinic, surgery center, or hospital. Where you have surgery depends on the type of surgery and how much time you need to heal from it. Inpatient surgery means that you need to stay in the hospital overnight or longer to recover after the surgery. Outpatient surgery means that you do not need to stay overnight in the hospital before or after surgery. Types of surgery  Diagnostic. For most types of cancer, a biopsy is the main way to diagnose cancer. During a surgical biopsy, the surgeon makes a cut, called an incision, into the skin. Then, he or she removes some or all of the suspicious tissue. There are 2 main types of surgical biopsies: An incisional biopsy removes a piece of the suspicious area to study. An excisional biopsy removes the whole suspicious area, such as a mole or a lump. After a biopsy, a pathologist examines the tissue that was removed under a microscope. A pathologist is a doctor who interprets lab tests. He or she also looks at cells, tissues, and organs to find disease. The pathologist then gives a pathology report to the oncologist. Next, the oncologist looks at the report and diagnoses the tumor. Staging. Staging surgery is used to find out the size of the tumor and if or where the cancer has spread. The doctor often also removes some lymph nodes near the cancer to find out if it has spread. Lymph nodes are tiny, bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. Your health care team uses the results from this surgery and other tests to guide the treatment options. These tests can also help predict a person’s prognosis, which is the chance of recovery. The cancer's stage may also be included on the pathology report. Tumor removal, also called curative or primary surgery. Surgery is most commonly used to remove the tumor and some of the nearby healthy tissue. The tissue around the tumor is called the margin. Tumor removal may be the only treatment. Or it may be used with other treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. For this type of surgery, the surgeon makes large incisions through skin, muscle, and sometimes bone. Sometimes, he or she can use surgical techniques that are less invasive. These techniques may speed recovery and reduce pain after surgery. Learn more about different types of minimally invasive surgeryDebulking. Sometimes, the surgeon cannot remove the entire tumor. Or removing it might cause too much damage to the body. In these cases, surgery is used to remove as much of the tumor as possible. Other treatments, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy, may be used after surgery to continue treating the cancer. These treatments may also be given before surgery to help shrink the tumor so it can be removed with surgery.