Review Article - Journal of Diabetes Medication & Care (2022) Volume 5, Issue 4

The Chinese version of Diabetes Distress Scale for adults with type 2 diabetes

Sonali Singh*

Fortis C-DOC Centre of Excellence for Diabetes, Metabolic Diseases, And Endocrinology, Lucknow, India

*Corresponding Author:
Sonali Singh Fortis C-DOC Centre of Excellence for Diabetes, Metabolic Diseases, And Endocrinology, Lucknow, IndiaE-mail:

Received: 02-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. JDMC-22- 72465; Editor assigned: 06-Aug-2022, PreQC No. JDMC-22-72465 (PQ); Reviewed: 20- Aug-2022, QC No. JDMC-22-72465; Revised: 23-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. JDMC-22-72465 (R); Published: 30-Aug-2022; DOI: 10.37532/ jdmc.2022.5(4).70-72


This study aimed to translate the revised 17-item Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS17, 2017) into mandarin (simplified) Chinese and validate the Chinese version of DDS17 (C-DDS17, 2021) among adult patients with type 2 diabetes in China. The C-DDS17 is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing diabetes distress in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is a promising instrument for early identification evaluation and management of diabetes distress in clinical practice and trials.


China • Diabetes distress • Patents • Psychometrics • Type 2 diabetes


Type 2 polygenic disorder (T2D) may be a growing burden, with Associate in Nursing calculable 416.70 million adult patients worldwide and 110 million. 50 million patients in China [1-2]. It’s a chronic metabolic illness characterised by symptom, is caused by the shortcoming of duct gland duct gland cells to secrete enough hypoglycaemic agent or the shortcoming of the body to effectively use the secreted hypoglycaemic agent. T2D influences each physical and psychological state. Regarding two-fifths of patients expertise mental issues, like anxiety, depression and polygenic disorder distress. Among patients with T2D, polygenic disorder distress (DD) is that the most typical psychological drawback. A scientific review found that the international prevalence of Doctor of Divinity was thirty 6.0% in patients with T2D. A study additionally showed that some forty two.5%–77.2% of Chinese individuals with T2D seasoned Doctor of Divinity [2]. Doctor of Divinity may be a negative emotional response that features worries, fears, and frustrations caused by the perceived burden from living with and managing polygenic disorder on a day to day. Doctor of Divinity is related to low compliance, glycemia, adverse outcomes, and inflated prices. Moreover, though Doctor of Divinity isn’t a psychiatrical symptom, it may make depression if not properly managed. Therefore, Association recommends physicians and nurses judge Doctor of Divinity in disease development and treatment [3].


It is substantive to use valid tools to assess Doctor of Divinity. Many disease-specific instruments are developed to spot and assess Doctor of Divinity in recent years, together with the 17-item polygenic disorder Distress Scale (DDS17), the matter Areas in polygenic disorder Scale (PAID), the polygenic disorder Health Profile, and therefore the Diabetesspecific Quality-of-Life Scale and form. Among all the instruments, the PAID and therefore the DDS17 area unit most ordinarily employed in patients with polygenic disorder as a result of their high liableness and validity in assessing diabetes-related stress specifically. each scales are translated into varied languages (e.g., Chinese, Turkish, Norwegian) and show smart psychological science qualities (e.g., Cronbach’s α constant ranged from 0.56 to 0.93 for PAID, and ranged from zero.75 to 0.90 for DDS17) in numerous countries.

The Doctor of Divinity S17 has the advantage of not solely specializing in Associate in Nursing overall Doctor of Divinity level however additionally characteristic key sources of DD. additionally, the polygenic disorder Distress Scale has separate versions for kind one polygenic disorder and T2D; but, the PAID solely developed a hybrid version. Further, the polygenic disorder Distress Scale has separate versions for adults, partners, adolescents, and fogeys.

Data were collected employing a paperbased self-reported form together with the C-DDS17, socio-demographic characteristics (sex, age, income, ethnos, religion, legal status, instructional standing, and first payment of medical costs), and clinical data (duration, complications and treatment of polygenic disorder, case history, BMI, waist-tohip magnitude relation (WHR), and drinking and smoking status). Investigations were conducted face-to-face between patients and therefore the same investigator. All patients were asked to finish the questionnaires severally, if potential. If they might not (e.g., as a result of visual issues, low education level, or different reasons), the researchers objectively expressed queries and choices with unified directions and completed the form for the patients on their behalf.

Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were delineated by descriptive analysis. Continuous variables that follow normal distribution were drawn by suggests that and standard deviations (SD), whereas medians and twenty fifth and seventy fifth percentiles (P25–P75) drawn different variables. Count and share values were calculated for categorical variables.

Furthermore, Bartlett’s and Kaiser-Meyer- Olin (KMO) tests were accustomed judge the quality for correlational analysis. A KMO price less than 0.50 is unacceptable, whereas a price between zero.80 and 0.90 is taken into account smart, and a price beyond 0.90 is taken into account nice for correlational analysis. Once confirming the fitness for correlational analysis, the popular issue structure was adjudged by issue loadings through principal part analysis and Emperor Standardisation. Issue loadings ≥0.40 were thought-about sufficient to incorporate factors. Specifically, EFA models starting from one to four were calculable with oblique GEOMIN rotation, and CFA was accustomed check the competitor models. To assess whether or not the models established were appropriate for the information, absolutely the objective goodness-of-fit indices were thought-about victimisation the subsequent criteria.

A comparative work index (CFI) ≥ 0.95, Tucker Lewis index (TLI) ≥ 0.95, root mean sq. error of approximation (RMSEA) ≤ 0.08, standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) ≤ 0.08, and weighted root mean square residual (WRMR) ≤ 1.00 were thought-about acceptable. The relative goodness-of-fit of the calculable models was evaluated victimisation data criteria indices together with the Akaka data Criteria (AIC), theorem data Criteria (BIC), and sample size-adjusted BIC (SSA-BIC). Models with lower data criteria were thought-about comparatively higher fits to the information.

Convergent validity is that the true correlation degree between 2 constructs measures that ought to be connected on paper. It will be assessed by inter-scale correlations and average variance extracted (AVE), that ought to exceed 0.50. Discriminant validity refers to the extent to that 2 on paper unrelated measures area unit actually unrelated. It happens once the square correlations (SCs) between paired constructs area unit less than the AVE of the individual constructs.

Regarding liableness, internal consistency was examined victimisation Cranach’s α constant and corrected item-total correlation coefficients. Thought-about sufficient liableness coefficients ought to be as on the point of 1.00 as potential. Above all, a Cranach’s α constant price but 0.40 is taken into account unreliable, a price between 1.40 and 0.59 is a smaller amount reliable, between 0.60 and 0.79 is reliable, and between 1.80 and 1.00 is extraordinarily reliable. Item-total correlation is that the correlation between a private item and therefore the total score while not that item, that is suitable with a price no but 0.40, as calculable by Pearson’s parametric statistic.



Conflict of Interest

No conflict of interest


  1. Tsalamandris C, Allen TJ, Gilbert RE et al. Progressive decline in renal function in diabetic patients with and without albuminuria. Diabetes 43, 649-655(1994).
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  3. Kramer HJ, Nguyen QD, Curhan G. Renal insufficiency in the absence of albuminuria and retinopathy among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 289, 3273-3277(2003).
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  5. Afkarian M, Sachs MC, Kestenbaum B et al. Kidney disease and increased mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 24, 302-308 (2013).
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  7. Bailey RA. Chronic kidney disease in US adults with type 2 diabetes: an updated national estimate of prevalence based on Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) staging. BMC Res. Notes 7, 415-717 (2014).
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref

  9. Mottl AK, Kwon KS. Normoalbuminuric diabetic kidney disease in the U.S. population. J. Diabet. Complicat. 27:123-127 (2013).
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Crossref