Understanding Osteoarthritis: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options

Author(s): Maillefert JF


To conduct amulti-language restatement and cross-cultural adaption of the Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP) questionnaire for hipsterism and knee osteoarthritis (OA).


The questionnaires were restated and cross-culturally acclimated in parallel, using a common protocol, into the following languages Czech, Dutch, French (France), German, Italian, Norwegian, Spanish (Castillan), North and Central American Spanish, Swedish. The process was conducted following five way( 1) – independent restatement into the target language by two or three persons;( 2) – agreement meeting to gain a single primary restated interpretation;( 3) – backward restatement by an independent bilingual native English speaker, dazed to the English original interpretation;( 4) – final interpretation produced by a multidisciplinary agreement commission;( 5) –pre-testing of the final interpretation with 10 – 20 target- language-native hipsterism and knee OA cases.


The process could be followed and completed in all countries. Only slight differences were linked in the structure of the rulings between the original and the restated performances. A large maturity of the cases felt that the questionnaire was easy to understand and complete. Only a many minor examines were expressed. Also, a maturity of cases set up the generalities of constant pain and pain that comes and goes to be of a great relevance and was veritably happy with the distinction.


Osteoarthritis is a habitual common condition characterized by cartilage breakdown, leading to pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility. While