Technologies and Therapy: Genetic Engineering Technologies for Human Gene Therapy

Author(s): Dr. Lisa Brown

In the 1960s, the initial concepts of gene therapy were introduced. More than 1900 clinical trials for the treatment of genetic diseases and cancers, primarily with viral vectors, have been conducted since the early 1990s. Although a variety of treatments for malignant gliomas have been tried, it has been hard to get at invasive glioma cells. For the purpose of delivering genes to invasive gliomas, immortalized neural stem cells (NSC) and a nonlytic, amphotropic retroviral replicating vector (RRV) have attracted attention. Technology for editing the genome that targets insertions at specific sites has developed recently; CRISPR/Cas9, or clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated-9, is a particular example of this. More than 30 clinical trials using genome editing technologies have been conducted since 2015, and the outcomes have demonstrated the potential to improve patient outcomes. It is anticipated that gene therapy using CRISPR technologies to treat a wide range of diseases will continue to advance. Natural food preservatives known as essential oils (EOs) may impair the sensory qualities of foods. Microorganisms can be inactivated by emerging technologies (ETs), but the process may compromise quality parameters at high intensities. The mechanisms of microbial inactivation in combined processes are presented as well as the use of EOs and ETs in this manuscript. Additionally, the benefits, drawbacks, and limitations of EO and ETs were discussed. Lemongrass, lavender, thyme, sweet basil, lime, oregano, mentha, cinnamon, citral, caracole, carbon, geranium, eugenol, citrus extract, mandarin, rosemary, and clove essential oils were found to be effective in inactivating pathogens, spoilage bacteria, and molds when they were combined with cold plasma, ultrasound, irradiation, ultraviolet light, high hydrostatic processing, pulsed light, pulsed electric fields Meat, fish, eggs, milk, plant-based products, and food container surfaces are among the food matrices investigated for EO and ET.