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Prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses infections among hemodialysis patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Author(s): Juhar SK, Nurahmed N, Kebede S, Getahun M, Arega T & Abdi AM

Background: HBV and HCV infections are the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in haemodialysis patients. Hepatitis viruses cause potentially life-threatening inflammation of the liver, characterized by acute and chronic forms of liver disease. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen and Anti- hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody among haemodialysis (HD) patients in Addis Ababa was investigated using ELISA test method. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV).

Methodology: Cross-sectional study was done in a total of 253 (188 male and 65 female) chronic hemodialysis patients from two governmental and three private hemodialysis centers. Demographic information of hemodialysis was collected. The status of HBsAg and anti-HCV was assessed by using ELISA method by separating serum from collected blood sample and screened for the presence of HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody in a period of April-May 2016.

Results: In this study a total of 253 patients were recruited of whom 74.3% were men and the remaining 25.7% were females. HBsAg was positive in 1.2% (n=3/253) of the patients, anti- HCV antibodies were detected in 2.8% (n=7/253), 4% of patients had markers of at least one viral infection markers and 0.4% (n=1) were positive for both HBV and HCV infection.

Conclusion: In our study done, the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections in hemodialysis centers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was lower. Even if, history of blood transfusion and the number of blood units transfused might be a risk factor for HBV and HCV gaining, further studies are needed to assess the role of demographic and clinical risk factors in the Hemodialysis patients.

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