Predictive factors for diminishing self-care agency among older adults in urban community-Egypt

Author(s): Faiza A.Abou El-Soud

Background: Self-care agency among older adults is a common subject issue that is associated with health status in relation to a number of factors, so the family caregivers, health care providers, social and health care systems have still faced a significant challenge towards this issue depending on the capability of older individuals to take care of themselves. The study aimed to identify the levels of self-care agency among older adults in the urban community and its relation to the predictive factors that may increase older adults’ risk of developing a low capacity for self-care. Methodology: A descriptive design was used to describe the levels of capacity for self-care among older adults and correlational design was conducted to correlate between levels of self-care agency and predictive factors that may increase older adults’ risk of developing low capacity for self-care. Data collected from May 2018 to August 2018 at two social clubs were selected randomly. A convenience sample of 94 older adults was eligible for inclusion criteria to participate in this research. Tools: A cross-sectional survey by face to face interview questionnaire was used for data collection, which included six tools (I).Socio-demographic characteristics questionnaire; (II). The Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale-Revised (ASAS-R); (III).The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI); (IV). The 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36); (V).Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS); (VI). Rosenberg Selfesteem Scale (SES). Results: The majority of the study sample was represented both the old age group (75- 84 year) and the oldest-old age group (85+ years), and the highest percentage of the studied participants (61.7%) was female. More than half of the study sample (51.1%) have lacking capacity for self-care, while (29.8%) and (19.1%) in the levels of having the capacity for self-care and developing a capacity for selfcare respectively. A statistically significant correlation was found between levels of self-care agency and gender, levels of education, patterns of living arrangement, family and social support, self-esteem and life satisfaction. However, no statistically significant relationship was found between levels of self-care agency and marital status. The results showed the positive predictors that may impact on the capacity for self-care among older adults participants were physical component summary domains, life satisfaction, self-esteem, family support, social support, gender, levels of education, and patterns of living arrangement; while the severity of comorbidity index and advanced age were found as negative predictors that may older adults’ risk for diminishing capacity for self-care. Conclusion and Recommendations: By identifying the predictive factors that may reduce capacity for self-care among older adults, this will assist the health care system, health care providers, and family caregivers as well as society to be aware about anticipating future needs and address the issue of self-care deficit among the older adult and to take action for eliminating this sort of health problem with respect to the aging process. In this regards, the study recommended that all the governmental and nongovernmental health sectors are indebted to maintain a proactively develop programs that provide medical and social services for an aged population as a way of support of the elder population and their family to maximize the health and maintain self-care agency among those target population