Patterns of Pulmonary Involvement in an Egyptian Cohort with Autoimmune Diseases: A Descriptive Study

Author(s): Reem Hamdy A Mohammed*

Pulmonary involvement has been reported as a major contributor to significant morbidity and poor disease outcome in a myriad of autoimmune collagen vascular diseases.

Aim of the work: To screen and to describe the different patterns of pulmonary involvement in a cohort of Egyptian patients with autoimmune diseases.

Patients and methods: A cross sectional study conducted on patients attending the outpatient clinic as well as inpatient ward of rheumatology and rehabilitation and chest departments in Kasr Al Ainy teaching hospital- School of Medicine Cairo University in the period from January 2017 to January 2019. Approval and registration of the research by the institutional review board for research ethics was fulfilled prior to initiation of the study. HRCT chest was done to all patients using 16 channels MSCT in Kasr Al Ainy. Reconstructed axial, coronal and sagittal images were done to all patients; complementary mediastinal images were additionally taken. Results: Parenchymal lung disease in the form of interstitial pneumonitis with variable degrees of fibrosis (IPF) were encountered in 48% of the study cohort. Features suggestive of pulmonary hypertension with prominent PA diameter was found in 33% of cases. Mediastinal lymph node enlargement was noted in 34% of cases.

Conclusion: Pulmonary involvement is not uncommon in patients with autoimmune diseases. High resolution CT chest remains the most sensitive technique for early detection of parenchymal lung disease in these patients.