Materials with nanostructures for use in drug delivery and tissue engineering

Author(s): Stephanie Mikos

In the meantime, advances in nanotechnology enable systematic characterization, manipulation, and organization of matter at the nanometre scale. As controlled release reservoirs for drug delivery and artificial matrices for tissue engineering, biomaterials with Nano scale organization have been utilized. It is possible to synthesize drug-delivery systems with controlled composition, shape, size, and morphology. To improve cellular uptake, immunocompatibility, and solubility, their surface properties can be altered. Suboptimal bioavailability, limited effective targeting, and the possibility of cytotoxicity are some of the drawbacks of the current drug delivery systems. Dendrites, nanoparticles, Nano capsules, nanotubes, and Nano gels are among the promising and adaptable Nano scale drug delivery systems. Peptides, proteins, plasmid DNA, and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides are all examples of bio macromolecules that can be delivered through them. Current techniques place an emphasis on the control of cell behaviours and the formation of tissue by Nano scale topography that closely resembles the natural extracellular matrix (ECM), as opposed to the hydrolytically degradable macropores materials that were the foundation of traditional scaffolds for tissue engineering. Researchers used electro spinning or selfassembly to create Nano fibrous scaffolds because they realized that the natural ECM is a multifunctional Nano composite. It has been demonstrated that Nan crystal-containing Nanocomposites stimulate active bone growth. Tissue engineering and drug delivery are closely related fields. In point of fact, controlled delivery of mammalian cells is the goal of tissue engineering, which can be seen as a special case of drug delivery