Dystonic disorder in Children

Author(s): Bella Amato

Involuntary postures and/or movements are characteristic of movement disorders. It is a common presentation in pediatrics and frequently presents with clinical and diagnostic difficulties. Movement disorders are typically divided into hyperkinetic and hypokinetic categories. Disorders known as hyperkinetic include dystonia, chorea, athetosis, stereotypies, myoclonus, tics, and tremor, all of which are characterized by abnormal involuntary movements. A lack of movement is common to hypokinetic disorders, which include rare conditions like Parkinsonism. The most common forms of movement disorders are dystonia and chorea. Multiple types of movement disorders may coexist in many conditions, making it challenging to distinguish between them. There are no estimates of the proportion of pediatric presentations involving movement disorders or the prevalence of movement disorders in children. There is a lack of clarity regarding the precise pathophysiology of movement disorders; however, in most conditions, evidence suggests that either cerebellar or basal ganglia circuits, which include parts of the thalamus and cortex, are involved.