A Review on the Periodontal Disease

Author(s): Kamyar Yazdanian*

Periodontitis would be caused by the biofilm of oral pathogenic microorganisms caused by their coaggregation and multiplicity. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) enclose the individual bacteria in biofilms as a protective shield, shielding them from attack. It is essential and difficult to disrupt the EPS of pathogenic bacteria in order to treat periodontal disease. We hypothesized that these polymers might be capable of relieving periodontitis because our designed cationic dextrans had sufficient capacity for disorganizing EPS. We confirmed that cationic dextrans could effectively destroy biofilm in vitro by triggering the phase transition of EPS in biofilms, particularly those created by the keystone periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). In a rat periodontal disease model, satisfactory in vivo treatment was achieved. In conclusion, the study made use of the powerful biofilm-controlling capability of cationic dextrans to implement a practical and efficient treatment plan for periodontitis.