A Review of Ant phospholipid Syndrome

Author(s): Zhiang Chao

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), also known as antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, is a complex autoimmune disorder characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in the blood. These antibodies target phospholipid molecules, primarily found in cell membranes and platelets, leading to a range of clinical manifestations. APS is associated with a heightened risk of abnormal blood clot formation, known as thrombosis, which can affect both veins and arteries, potentially leading to serious complications such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, stroke, or heart attack. This syndrome is also recognized for its obstetric complications, including recurrent miscarriages, stillbirths, and complications during pregnancy, which result from the disruption of placental blood flow due to clot formation in the maternal and fetal circulations. Additionally, APS can cause various other clinical features, such as thrombocytopenia, livedo reticularis, and neurological symptoms. The diagnosis of APS involves the detection of specific antiphospholipid antibodies, such as lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies, and anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies, in the blood. Clinical criteria, including both vascular and obstetric manifestations, are also used to confirm the diagnosis. Management typically includes anticoagulant therapy, such as warfarin or newer direct oral anticoagulants, to prevent thrombotic events. Patients with APS may require long-term treatment and close monitoring. Understanding the pathophysiology and clinical spectrum of APS is essential for healthcare professionals, as timely diagnosis and appropriate management are critical in preventing complications and improving the quality of life for affected individuals. Ongoing research continues to refine our knowledge of this syndrome and