A Note on the Calcium Orthophosphate Cements and ConcreteAuthor(s): Sergey V. Dorozhkin
Researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are a bioactive and biodegradable grafting material in the form of a powder and a liquid. Both phases form after mixing a viscous paste that after being implanted sets and hardens within the body as either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) or brushite, sometimes blended with unreacted particles and other phases. As both CDHA and brushite are remarkably biocompatible and bioresorbable (therefore, in vivo they can be replaced with newly forming bone), calcium orthophosphate cements represent a good correction technique for non-weight-bearing bone fractures or defects and appear to be very promising materials for bone grafting applications . Besides, these cements possess an excellent osteoconductivity, molding capabilities and easy manipulation. The concepts established by calcium orthophosphate cement pioneers in the early 1980s were used as a platform to initiate a new generation of bone substitute materials for commercialization. Since then, advances have been made in the composition, performance and manufacturing; several beneficial formulations have already been introduced as a result.