Radio (chemo)therapy has been a crucial a part of carcinoma treatment for several decades and its recent advances have led to significant improvements in treatment outcomes. The present review will specialise in the appliance of radiotherapy for locally advanced nonsmall cell carcinoma (NSCLC). Carcinoma is one among the foremost common causes of cancer death, with many patients diagnosed during a locally advanced stage. Although the treatment outcome has improved over the last decades, it remains poor. Locally advanced carcinoma may be a heterogeneous group and therefore the definition often overlaps with stage III carcinoma. Typically patients with stage I/II carcinoma would be primarily considered for curatively intended surgery or stereotactic body radiotherapy just in case of inoperability. Stage IV patients would typically receive palliative treatment, often involving systemic agents while nowadays multimodal concepts are being tested in oligo-metastatic cases. Radiotherapy delivers ionising radiation, which successively causes physical and chemical interactions resulting in DNA and other tumour damage. Repetitive exposure to appropriate doses of radiation causes increased damage to tumour cells in comparison to healthy tissue. this is often the idea of conventionally fractionated radiotherapy, where typically a dose of two Gy is delivered five times per week. Currently a daily fraction of 1.8–2 Gy is taken into account standard for carcinoma.    

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